Content Guidelines/Standards Matrix

College/University

Eastern Michigan University

Code

DE

Source of Guidelines/Standards

Michigan State Board of Education,
August 2002

Program/Subject Area

Physics

A – Awareness

The physics teacher recognizes/recalls the existence of different aspects of the science of physics and related teaching strategies.

B – Basic Understanding

The physics teacher articulates knowledge about the science of physics and related instructional and assessment strategies.  The physics teacher demonstrates proficiency in using the knowledge at a fundamental level of competence acceptable for teaching.

C – Comprehensive Understanding

The physics teacher is able to apply broad, in-depth knowledge of the different aspects of the science of physics in a variety of settings.  (This level is not intended to reflect mastery; all teachers are expected to be lifelong learners.)

DIRECTIONS:    List required courses on matrix and provide additional narrative to explain how standards are met.  If electives are included, they should be clearly indicated.  Adjust size of cells as needed.


     

Narrative Explaining how Required Courses and/or Experiences Fulfill the Standards for Program

 

Standard/Guideline

 

Secondary Minor

Secondary Major

 

Submit a narrative that explains how this program:

   

A.

uses the Michigan Curriculum Framework K-12 Science Content Standards and Benchmarks as the critical foundation for teacher preparation, ensuring that physics teachers have the content knowledge and the ability to teach this curriculum; and

The specific way in which our program realizes the appropriate content coverage is detailed below and will not be repeated here. 

Majors and minors alike take a 10 hour calculus-based introductory sequence which covers all of the classical physics topics that are found in comparable courses at other universities and that are addressed in the high school physics classroom.  The only exception to this statement is thermodynamics.  This topic has been removed from our introductory sequence to make room to cover other topics in more depth.  Majors and minors will now be required to take a separate course in thermodynamics.

Topics in modern physics are covered in a stand-alone course.  Finally, majors and minors take an intermediate level course in classical mechanics due to its heavy emphasis in the high school curriculum and due to the universality of energy related themes in all aspects of physics.

The ability to teach physics rests in part on the ability to do physics. Our introductory sequence includes two hours of lab per week (in addition to the five classroom hours), and minors must take at least on intermediate level lab course.  All lab experiences require students to acquire and analyze data, and report their results.  Many of the experiences require formal write-ups to assess student understanding of the principles of the experiment and to develop improved written communication skills.  Some activities require more initiative from the students in the form of designing the experiment and configuring the equipment.

The program for majors has additional requirements which extend beyond those for the minors.

Majors take an intermediate level course in electricity and magnetism to develop more depth in that field.  They must also complete at least two more lab experiences at the intermediate or advanced level.  Finally, a course in ethical issues in physics allows them to make connections between their study of science and the scientific community as well as society at large.

B.

develops an understanding of the interconnectedness of all science, including biology, chemistry, and the earth/space sciences, and relates this understanding to the teaching of physics.

The laboratory experiences provide majors and minors alike with illustrations of significant themes that run through all fields in science.  These themes are described in the Michigan Curriculum Framework Science Content Benchmarks under the headings of Constructing New Scientific Knowledge and Reflecting on Scientific Knowledge. 

Specific connections to other disciplines are made in several courses.  For instance, the introductory sequence includes applications to biomechanics, earth science and space science.  The course in modern physics lays the foundation for understanding chemical bonds.  In thermodynamics, the investigation of the properties of the phases of matter makes links to many topics studied in chemistry.

Majors explore the interconnectedness of science in more detail be taking at least one chemistry course, one biology course, and an astronomy course and lab.  They also discuss general principles of scientific ethics in the ethics course.


   

Level of

Narrative Explaining how Required Courses and/or Experiences
Fulfill the Standards for Program

No.

Standard/Guideline

Proficiency

Secondary Minor

Secondary Major

 

The preparation of physics teachers will enable them to:

   

1.0

understand and develop the major concepts and principles of physics as the study of matter and energy and of the interaction between the two and including mechanics, electricity, magnetism, thermodynamics, waves, optics, solid-state physics, atomic and nuclear physics, radioactivity, relativity, and quantum mechanics and shall include such topics as:

   

1.1

Matter and Energy

Majors and Minors are required to take PHY 223 Mechanics & Sound.  A representative syllabus with coverage details is attached. Chapters referenced below refer to that syllabus.

 

1.1.1

mechanics

C

   

1.1.1.2

conservation of energy, momentum, angular momentum

C

PHY 223 chapters 7-12

Same as minor

1.1.1.3

inertia

C

PHY 223 chapter 5

Same as minor

1.1.1.4

oscillatory motion

C

PHY 223 chapter 16

Same as minor

1.1.1.5

law of gravity

C

PHY 223 chapter 14

Same as minor

1.1.2

Electricity and Magnetism

Majors and Minors are required to take PHY 224 Electricity & Light.  A representative syllabus with learning objectives is attached. Objectives referenced below refer to that syllabus.

 

1.1.2.1

electro-statics – Coulomb’s law

C

PHY 224 objective 4

Same as minor

1.1.2.2

electro-static field and potential

C

PHY 224 objectives 5 & 8

Same as minor

1.1.2.3

electric dipoles

C

PHY 224 objective 4

Same as minor

1.1.2.4

electro-static energy and force

C

PHY 224 objectives 4 & 14

Same as minor

1.1.2.5

Ohm’s law

C

PHY 224 objectives 9 & 10

Same as minor

1.1.2.6

magnetic induction field

C

PHY 224 objectives 11 & 12

Same as minor

1.1.2.7

Biot-Savart law

B

PHY 224 objective 15

Same as minor

1.1.2.8

Amphere’s law

B

PHY 224 objective 15

Same as minor

1.1.2.9

magnetic energy, force, and torque

C

PHY 224 objectives 11 & 14

Same as minor

1.1.2.10

Maxwell’s equations

A

PHY 224 objective 15

Same as minor

1.1.2.11

relativistic electro-dynamics

A

Not currently covered

Same as minor

1.1.3

Thermodynamics

Majors and Minors are required to take PHY 360 Heat and Thermodynamics, which covers the topics in 1.1.3 as indicated.  Chapter numbers refer to the current textbook.  See PHY 360 syllabus for details.

 

1.1.3.1

Temperature

C

Temperature is defined in chapter 2 and then integrated throughout the rest of the course.

Same as minor

1.1.3.2

Work

C

Work is introduced as one of 2 key energy flow mechanisms in chapter 5 and then developed in subsequent chapters.

Same as minor

1.1.3.3

specific heat

C

Specific heat is introduced in the context of processes which cause entropy change (chapter 6) and then is then used in chapters 7 and 8.

Same as minor

1.1.3.4

Compressibility

A

Compressibility is described in Chapter 1 and discussed further in Chapter 4.

Same as minor

1.1.3.5

Entropy

A

Entropy is described in Chapter 2 and integrated throughout the rest of the course.  Students are expected to be proficient at the C level, not just the A level.

Same as minor

1.1.3.6

laws of thermodynamics

B

All of the laws of thermodynamics are introduced in Chapter 2.  The first and second law are revisited in detail in Chapter 8.

Same as minor

1.1.3.7

internal energy

B

Internal Energy is described in Chapter 2 and integrated throughout the rest of the course.  Students are expected to be proficient at the C level, not just the B level.

Same as minor

1.1.3.8

Enthalpy

B

Enthalpy is introduced in Chapter 5 and revisited in Chapters 7 and 8.

Same as minor

1.1.3.9

Maxwell – Boltzmann theory

B

Maxwell-Boltzmann theory is introduced in pieces in Chapters 1, 3, and 4.  It is described in greater detail in Chapter 10.

Same as minor

1.1.3.10

cryogenics – properties of materials at low temperatures and safe handling of liquid nitrogen

A

PHY 360 Chapter 5 (10/13/04 on attached syllabus)

Same as minor

1.1.4

Optics

Majors and Minors are required to take PHY 224 Electricity & Light.  A representative syllabus with learning objectives is attached.  Below referenced objectives refer to that syllabus.

 

1.1.4.1

simple optical systems

C

PHY 224 objective 16

Same as minor

1.1.4.2

interference and interferometers

B

PHY 224 objective 17

Same as minor

1.1.4.3

diffraction

C

PHY 224 objective 18

Same as minor

1.1.4.4

double-slit

C

PHY 224 objective 17

Same as minor

1.1.4.5

Grating

C

PHY 224 objective 18

Same as minor

1.1.4.6

limit resolution

B

PHY 224 objective 18

Same as minor

1.1.4.7

polarization and reflection

C

PHY 224 objective 16

Same as minor

1.1.4.8

spectroscopy

C

The is covered in PHY 370 Modern Physics in the Chapters entitled Atomic Structure and Molecular Structure

Same as minor

1.1.4.9

radiometry

A

This is covered in PHY 360 Heat and Thermodynamics in the context of detecting thermal radiation (see reference to Chapter 5 in the syllabus).

Same as minor

1.1.4.10

photometry

A

Theory of photometry is covered in the context of the photoelectric effect in PHY 370 Modern Physics in the chapter entitled The Quantum Theory of Light.  It is also addressed in detection systems in Nuclear Physics Applications.

Same as minor

1.1.4.11

lasers, holography, fiber optics

B

Fiber optics are discussed in relation to Objective 16 on the PHY 224 syllabus.

Same as minor

1.1.5

Quantum Physics

Majors and Minors are required to take PHY 370 Modern Physics, which covers quantum physics.  The references below refer to the test numbers on the syllabus for that course.

 

1.1.5.1

blackbody radiation

B

PHY 370 in the chapter entitled The Quantum Theory of Light.  This is also discussed in PHY 360 Heat and Thermodynamics (Chapter 5).

Same as minor

1.1.5.2

Schrodinger’s equation

A

PHY 370 in the chapter entitled Quantum Mechanics in One Dimension and again in Quantum Mechanics in Three Dimensions.

Same as minor

1.1.5.3

multiple wave functions

A

PHY 370 in the chapter entitled Atomic Structure.

Same as minor

1.1.5.4

shell model of the atom

B

PHY 370 in the chapter entitled Atomic Structure.

Same as minor

1.1.5.5

theory of solids

A

PHY 370 in the chapter entitled The Solid State.

Same as minor

1.1.5.6

Fermi-Dirac statistics

A

PHY 370 in the chapter entitled Statistical Physics.

Same as minor

1.1.5.7

Bose-Einstein statistics

A

PHY 370 in the chapter entitled Statistical Physics.

Same as minor

1.1.6

Acoustics

Majors and Minors are required to take PHY 223 Mechanics & Sound.  A representative syllabus with coverage details is attached.  Below referenced chapters refer to that syllabus.

 

1.1.6.1

wave motion

C

PHY 223 chapter 17

Same as minor

1.1.6.2

sound waves

C

PHY 223 chapter 18

Same as minor

1.1.6.3

doppler effect

C

PHY 223 chapter 18

Same as minor

1.1.6.4

standing waves

C

PHY 223 chapter 17

Same as minor

1.1.6.5

resonance

C

PHY 223 chapter 17

Same as minor

1.1.7

Nuclear Physics

Majors and Minors are required to take PHY 370.  The references below refer to one text used for that course.

 

1.1.7.1

properties of nuclei

C

PHY 370 in the chapter entitled Nuclear Structure.

Same as minor

1.1.7.2

nuclear models

C

PHY 370 in the chapter entitled Nuclear Structure.

Same as minor

1.1.7.3

nuclear magnetic resonance

A

PHY 370 in the chapter entitled Nuclear Structure.

Same as minor

1.1.7.4

radioactivity

C

PHY 370 in the chapter entitled Nuclear Structure and again in Nuclear Physics Applications.

Same as minor

1.1.7.5

Fission

C

PHY 370 in the chapter entitled Nuclear Physics Applications.

Same as minor

1.1.7.6

Fusion

C

PHY 370 in the chapter entitled Nuclear Physics Applications.

Same as minor

1.1.7.7

elementary quark model

B

PHY 370 in the chapter entitled Elementary Particles.

Same as minor

1.1.7.8

standard model of elementary particle physics

B

PHY 370 in the chapter entitled Elementary Particles.

Same as minor


   

Narrative Explaining how Required Courses and/or Experiences
Fulfill the Standards for Program

No.

Standard/Guideline

Secondary Minor

Secondary Major

 

The preparation of physics teachers will enable them to:

   

2.0.

apply mathematics, including statistics and calculus and introductory differential equations, to investigations in physics and the analysis of data;

Minors are required to take a year of introductory calculus, a semester of multivariable calculus, and a semester of linear algebra.  All of these courses must be completed before they take PHY 330, PHY 350, and PHY 360, and these physics courses rely significantly on them.  All other physics courses on the minor require and use a calculus.  PHY 330 Intermediate Mechanics I introduces students to solving differential equations in the context of variable force problems (specifically velocity dependent forces, simple harmonic oscillators, and anharmonic oscillators).

In addition to what is required of minors, majors must also take a math course in differential equations. 

3.0

relate the concepts of physics to contemporary, historical, technological, and societal issues; in particular, relate concepts of physics to current controversies and other issues;

The impact of modern developments in physics is addressed in PHY 370 Modern Physics through topics such as nuclear power (in the chapter entitled Nuclear Physics Applications).

In addition to PHY 370, majors take PHY 406 Ethical Issues in Physics.  Approximately half of the course focuses on the relationship between the physics community and society at large.

4.0

locate resources, design and conduct inquiry-based open-ended investigations in physics, interpret findings, communicate results, and make judgments based on evidence;

Minors are required to complete at least one lab course at the junior or senior level.  In virtually all cases, they take either PHY 332 Mechanics Lab or PHY 372 Modern Physics Lab.  Syllabi for these courses are attached.  Expectations for students include preparing written lab reports which include data analysis, interpretation of results, and conclusions on the significance of the evidence.  In addition, the final lab in PHY 332 requires students to design their own experiment to determine the range of validity of a theoretical model.

Majors are required to take three lab courses at the junior or senior level.  They typically take both PHY 332 Mechanics Lab, PHY 372 Modern Physics

5.0

construct new knowledge for themselves through research, reading and discussion, and reflect in an informed way on the role of science in human affairs;

Knowledge is constructed by students in the context of their upper level laboratory experience.  Most laboratory projects include some component which is unknown (beyond a simple numerical value) which the student must deduce.  For instance, while a student might be directed to make a particular measurement, they will need to deduce the uncertainty in the data they are accumulating, based on their understanding of the way the equipment works.  Knowledge is also constructed by students as they work through problem set assignments.  As the coursework becomes more advanced, students see fewer and fewer sample problems solved in class or in their textbooks.  To solve their assigned problems, they must construct solutions based on general principles provided them rather than on specific instructions which match the problem they have been given.

All of the information listed under the Minors heading applies to majors, but majors have more opportunities to construct knowledge due in part to their taking more courses.

Majors also take PHY 406 Ethical Issues in Physics.  Students read from a wide range of sources and discuss the implications in class.  Students participate in group research projects and present their results in oral and written form.  A typical topic would be a study of ethical issues raised by the space Shuttle Challenger accident.

6.0

understand and promote the maintenance of a safe science classroom as identified by the Council of State Science Supervisors, including the appropriate use and storage of scientific equipment, and safe storage, use, and disposal of materials;

This is covered in PHY 332 Mechanics Laboratory on the first assignment where students study classroom and instructional laboratory safety standards.

In addition to PHY 332, majors also take PHY 406 which includes a discussion of safety issues.

7.0

demonstrate competence in the practice of teaching as defined within the Entry-Level Standards for Michigan Teachers;

All secondary education programs are structured around the EMU Teacher Preparation Standards and Benchmarks. These are aligned with the MI

Entry-Level standards Students complete six core program assessments--in addition to field experiences and student teaching--all organized around the benchmarks.

These assessments can be found in the ACEI materials if needed. In particular, all student teachers must complete a required curriculum unit in their content area that documents student learning as a result of the unit.

All students have three pre-student teaching placements and one student teaching placement.  They routinely get experience in both their major and minor content area during these times.

During the past 5 years we have had 5 minors take  MTTC; 4 were Math majors and one was a General Science major.  We believe that much of their training in the area of their major is relevant to their minor as well.

Same as minor

8.0

create and maintain an educational environment in which conceptual understanding will occur for all science students;

Students must complete curriculum units in their science areas in both

CURR 305 and student teaching. Part of the assessment for each of these units is the analysis of content and organization around key concepts.

In addition, both units must include multiple teaching methods (related to multiple learning styles) and adaptations for a variety of special needs. The student teaching unit must be assessed to document overall student learning and particular analysis of learning for a student with a special need. Of course multiple other dimensions of effective teaching are assessed in the student teaching evaluation forms and journal. All these materials with rubrics (except the ST unit rubric which is in process) are available, mostly in ACEI materials.

During the past 5 years we have had 5 minors take  MTTC; 4 were Math majors and one was a General Science major.  We believe that much of their training in the area of their major is relevant to their minor as well.

Same as minor

9.0

demonstrate competence in the practice of teaching through investigative experiences and by demonstrating the application of the scientific processes and in assessing student learning through multiple processes; and

Both the unit prepared in CURR 305 and the student teaching unit must include at least one inductive lesson. That isn't the same as investigative experiences but it is supportive of that kind of experience. In EDPS 340 students must develop both traditional and authentic assessments. In student teaching they must assess student learning through a variety of both individual and group analyses.

All students have three pre-student teaching placements and one student teaching placement.  They routinely get experience in both their major and minor content area during these times.

During the past 5 years we have had 5 minors take  MTTC; 4 were Math majors and one was a General Science major.  We believe that much of their training in the area of their major is relevant to their minor as well.

Same as minor

10.0

develop an understanding and appreciation for the nature of scientific inquiry.

Our introductory sequence (PHY 223/4) includes 2 hours of lab per week.  During the laboratory experiments and through the required reports, students begin to develop an appreciation for the nature of scientific inquiry.  It is department policy that to pass the course a student must pass the lab component (see PHY 224 syllabus).  A deeper understanding of inquiry comes through the requirement of a junior or senior level laboratory course.

In addition to what the minors experience, majors address the nature of scientific inquiry in PHY 406 Ethical Issues in Physics.  Reactions by the scientific community to pseudo-discoveries such as N rays (ca. 1900) and cold fusion (1980's) provide a context in which students can refine their understanding of how scientific knowledge is advanced.  Majors are also required to take two additional junior or senior level laboratory courses.

Revised 10/28/04

Physics Draft Standards 7 02.doc