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Presenter Abstracts - Graduate at the Podium 2014



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Adams, Marcus

Room 320 (11:00 am - 11:15 am)
Hoodwinked: Project 100,000 and African American Men during the Vietnam Era

In the American cultural vernacular, manhood and military service equates to one and the same. However when the discuss turns to the makeup of its armed forces, America historically has adopted a position based on perceived racial superiority. Beginning with the Revolutionary War to World War II, the experience of African American men can be summarized as follows: White officials exclude African Americans from the armed forces in the beginning of the war because they doubt that African Americans made competent warriors; because they fear the repercussions of having armed black men train in their communities; and because they want to avoid treating black veterans as citizens. On July 26, 1948, President Harry S. Truman signed Executive Order 998, essentially committed the government to integrating the segregated military. The integration of the armed forces was completed in 1954 and began an era in which many contemporary observers contend that black men had greater opportunities in the military than in the private sector. However with the armed forces becoming more technologically adept, a very large population of black men were still deemed unfit to serve due to their failure to pass the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT). Project 100,000 was originally designed as a program for the guidance, testing, training, and rehabilitation for youths found disqualified for military service and that this would be accomplished by the military. This project will examine Project 100,000 and its impact on African Americans during the Vietnam War.


Alsini, Sabreen

Room 352 (9:50 am -10:05 am)
Fire Safety Requirements and Spatial Configuration for Public School Design in Saudi Arabia

The religious practice and social norms in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia stipulate gender separation in public environments, including school buildings. Security measures embedded in building design are applied to enforce social norms and provide security; however, some overreaching measures for security posit dangerous difficulties for users to egress in the case of fire. To address the fire safety issues, the paper plans to cover the following: (1) examining the fire safety issues of public school design in Saudi Arabia; and (2) providing design guidelines to ensure fire safety based on the U.S. perspective of building code requirements formulated by National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and International Building Code (IBC). This paper will also examine the occupancy load calculation, egress design, fire safety systems, and related equipment to achieve the fire safety in educational buildings in Saudi Arabia. Some building floor plans of existing public schools will be used as case study to evaluate the design effectiveness of fire compartment and means of egress. Finally, this paper will analyze the functional requirements of various mechanisms, such as fire alarm, automatic suppression system, fire-rated assemblies that can be integrated with spatial configuration to ensure the fire safety of public school design in Saudi Arabia.


Altmimi, Mansour

Room 352 (11:00 am - 11:15 am)
The Impact of Language Contract on Saudi Arabic

This research paper investigated the linguistic contact situation in Saudi Arabia and its role in changing Saudi Arabic. First, light is shed on the available literature that has dealt with the issue. Next, the causes of language contact are discussed, both in general and in Saudi Arabia in particular. Next addressed is a new source of language contact that has not been given much attention: Saudi nationals who study abroad and return speaking other languages that affect the way they speak Arabic. After that, emphasis is laid on a major source of language contact that is the result of foreigners. In addition to discussing the nature of the pidgin used as medium of communication between Saudis and foreigners, the words that have been incorporated in the lexicon as well as changes that phonological and semantic changes are analyzed. The general theme that is advocated in this paper is that language contact in Saudi Arabia has played a big role in changing Saudi Arabic.


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Bahleda, Kristin

Room 352 (10:10 am - 10:25 am)
Wetland Nutrients on Necedah National Wildlife Refuge Play a Role in Whooping Crane (Grus Americana) Nest Site Selection

Whooping Cranes (Grus Americana) select sites according to philopatry, the returning of an individual to its birthplace in order to breed. Little is known about other factors that could potentially influence crane nest site selection. It was hypothesized that varying levels of wetland nutrient supplies could play a significant role in Whooping crane site selection, through the effects on wetland vegetation. Nutrients were measured in soil and water samples collected from twenty existing nest sites within Necedah National Wildlife Refuge in Necedah Wisconsin, as well as twenty-two additional refuge wetland sites not currently being used by the birds. Plant communities in each site were sampled in order to determine diversity using the Shannon-Weiner indices, and contrast similarity via non-metric multi-dimensional scaling. Levels of diversity were higher in sites the birds nested in compared to others, both in relative abundance of plant species and in total number of species present. Phosphorus and organic nitrogen were also tested across all sites. Soil samples were tested in the field as well as in the lab, comparing pH, nitrogen, ammonium and nitrate. Nest sites show lower levels of specific conductance, soluble reactive phosphorus, total phosphorus, ammonium, nitrate, percent carbon, and percent organic matter than non-nest sites. However, pH is higher in nest sites than in non-nest sites. Therefore nest sites consistently were shown to have lower levels of wetland nutrients than non-nest sites through all environmental factors measured and compared, indicating that the cranes are selecting sites according to the levels of nutrients present.


Bromley, Chelsea

Room 350 (11:40 am - 11:55 am)
New Picture Book, Old Cinema: The Invention of Hugo Cabret

Brian Selznick, author of The Invention of Hugo Cabret, has no idea what to call his book—is it a graphic novel? Picture book? What is it? -- and he’s not alone. How to classify such a text, and why it matters (if it matters), is a questions scholars have been pondering in the wake of books such as Macaulay’s Black and White, Shaun Tan’s The Arrival, and The Invention of Hugo Cabret, all of which incorporate illustration and complicate our understanding of narrative. These works capture the attention of critics and scholars because they are challenging books: they challenge the reader through the confluence of semiotic sign systems and modes of reading, and they challenge the form by incorporating a variety of visual styles and genres. In order to engage with hybrid texts such as these, the reader must draw upon a diverse set of skills and partake in multiple forms of literacy. This paper looks at Hugo Cabret as a hybrid graphic novel, an illustrated text that incorporates images and narrative in a compelling, multifaceted way that simultaneously arises out of, speaks to, and is made possible by our digital environment. By unpacking some of the individual genres informing, and therefore creating, the hybrid novel Hugo Cabret, the multiple literacies at work will highlight not only the educational benefit of hybrid texts, but also reveal the ways in which different media interact and refashion one another through the process of remediation.


Burchill, Kerri

Room 352 (11:40 am - 11:55 am)
Professional Dialogue – A Necessary Tool for Change

Most faculty in higher education institutions are expected to publish and teach – responsibilities that are often carried out in isolation. Isolation is problematic because it limits faculty’s opportunity to benefit from the insights and talents of other faculty members (Hargreaves & Fullan, 2013; Eib & Miller, 2006). Researchers have argued against isolation, promoting the value of collaboration in higher education. Shulman (1993) urges institutions put an end to “pedagogical solitude,” and argues that community is a key component of advancing education (p. 6). Tierney (1997) describes a socialization culture that encourages faculty to interact that embraces “creativity and difference” to improve education (p. 15). Today, many institutions are creating opportunities for faculty to dialogue about teaching and learning. However, higher education’s tradition of isolation creates challenge as there lacks a structure to facilitate professional dialogue. This presentation focuses on Eastern Michigan University and its development and implementation of a framework for professional dialogue. In creating effective ways to support teaching and learning, Eastern Michigan University’s Faculty Development Center is extending its beliefs and challenging routine patterns of thinking. Using professional conversation as a framework, Eastern Michigan University has engaged in a journey that has sought to shift institutional and individual thinking away from what Senge et al. (2004) refer to as “reactive learning” into “deeper levels of understanding” (p. 10-11). Participants in this session will leave with an understanding of a professional conversation framework, and will have opportunity to discuss how the framework could be applied in other settings.


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Dieterich, Elizabeth

Room 352 (12:00 pm - 12:15 pm)
“The Action to the Word, and the Word to the Action”: Meaning and Authority of Shakespearean Performance

his presentation represents part of my MA thesis in English Literature, which synthesizes approaches to Shakespearean drama across disciplinary boundaries of critical literary theory, theater and performance studies, and psychoanalysis in order to bridge these boundaries and explore how performance creates meaning out of dramatic text. In this presentation I will examine how contemporary performances of Shakespeare remain faithful and critically important to understanding the meaning of Shakespeare’s work. The Early Modern theater of Shakespeare’s time lacked what we know of today as a “fourth wall,” so the relationship between theatrical performer and audience was more reciprocally porous than we are accustomed to today. My examination will utilize the recent affective turn in psychoanalytic thought to illuminate how transmission of feelings through tone, gesture, expression, or pheromones may create meaning. This affective transmission blurs boundaries between individuals and environment and resonates with Early Modern psychology, which understood the category of the individual to be highly permeable. Today, many Shakespearean productions endeavor to maintain this affective economy; actors often utilize many Early Modern aesthetic practices because these practices give richer meaning to the text and allow the text to affectively work on the audience. The ways that approaches to Shakespearean performance have remained the same across centuries demonstrates how boundaries of time and practice are more fluid than scholars usually allow.



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Foran, Linda K.

Room 320 (11:40 am - 11:55 am)
Fitting a Square Peg into a Round Hole: Transferring Stakeholder Theory from Business to Education

In 2009, the Michigan Legislature passed the Michigan School Reform Law. For this on-going study of principals’ perceptions of a mandated educational policy, stakeholder theory is applicable due to, and in spite of, its ambiguous nature. Few researchers have addressed the application of stakeholder theory as a framework for examining an educational system, yet it is possible.
Stakeholder theory attempts to define the relationship between owners and stakeholders by observing the management practices implemented for the pursuit of articulated organizational goals. Stakeholder theorists, in the past, have been training managers and executives in a capitalistic business environment or teachers at business schools. Although stakeholder theory has its roots in business and management, the concept of “stakeholder” exists within public and/or private sectors. Applying stakeholder theory as the theoretical framework in this study of principals’ perceptions, acknowledges the ubiquitous nature of the term “stakeholder” in addition to the reciprocal relationship found between the stakeholder (principals) and owners (the legislature).


Fort, Bethany

Room 350 (10:10 am - 10:25 am)
Preteen, Subteen, Tween: Defining and Marketing the Preadolescent Genre

Throughout the last century, the labels for the preadolescent age group (ages 10-14) indicate that they are in a waiting period to eventually “become,” as if their phase of life is not of equal significance to the childhood or adolescent stages. Similar to its target audience, a preadolescent novel, like Lois Lowry’s The Giver, is most often defined by what it is not: it is not a children’s or a young adult text. The purpose of this presentation is to define the genre of preadolescent literature using the developmental stage of preadolescence in comparison with the current marketing trends for preadolescent novels. The stage of preadolescence is a liminal period, which falls between the dominant stages of childhood and adolescence. This “in-between” stage is characterized by the emotional and biological changes that accompany puberty and the development of a new identity beyond childhood. However, I argue that the general designs of bookstores and libraries subvert the preadolescents’ emerging independence and inhibit the exploration of their identity by forcing them to choose between the two broad categories of children’s and young adult literature. I intend to illuminate the widespread nature of this problem by analyzing the results of surveys I collected concerning the layouts of bookstores as well as the current publishing trends in preadolescent book covers. I argue that preadolescents deserve to be regarded as a unique group of people, not as simply pre-, sub-, or between more important life stages, starting with the recognition of a distinct preadolescent literary genre.


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Garcia, Nicole

Room 330 (10:30 am - 10:45 am)
A Study of Developmental Algebra Textbooks

In 2002, 15 community colleges in Massachusetts participated in a project called the 100% Math Initiative which studied how to reduce the barriers that block students’ success in developmental mathematics. The 100% Math Initiative (2006) found that: Today, there are more than two million enrollments in developmental mathematics (basic arithmetic and basic and intermediate algebra) in community colleges nationally. Developmental mathematics is the single largest program in community colleges nationwide, enrolling more than 15% of all students, with failure rates as high as 50% (p.1). The study found several best practices for developmental mathematics and made recommendations. Textbook recommendation includes the following criteria: should be selected to include varied instructional methodologies; be contextually rich; incorporate numerous applications of the material; and be activity based and hands-on. At Jackson College 79% of new students place into developmental math with a 50% failure rate (Institutional Research Office, 2014). The program needs to be analyzed and should start at the most fundamental resource the textbook. The primary goal of my research is to see to what extent Jackson College’s developmental algebra textbook meets the criteria that the 100% Math Initiative recommends. Furthermore, I want to investigate how Jackson College’s developmental algebra textbook compares to a developmental algebra textbook that is used at Berkshire Community College in Massachusetts. Berkshire also has a large developmental population but much higher graduation rate. Recommendations will be made to the math faculty at Jackson College. References 100% Math Initiative and Jackson College I.R. data.


Gilbert, Megan

Room 310A (11:40 am - 11:55 am)
Downtown Mount Pleasant National Register Nomination

Beginning in the summer of 2013, I began consulting with Ruth Mills, Architectural Historian for Quinn Evans Architects, on the National Register of Historic Places nomination for Downtown Mount Pleasant, Michigan. During my first weeks of consulting I organized pre-survey documentation of Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps, Isabella County Geographic Information System (GIS) data on each parcel, and survey forms for each building in the downtown. While on a one-week site visit for the survey, notes and photographs were taken to document each building according to property type, current occupant, number of stories, architectural style, foundation, roof, windows, walls, material, windows, details, storefronts, interiors spaces and possible originality. Research through building permits, oral histories, city directories, local histories, aerial maps, and photographs was also initiated while on site. Once back in Ann Arbor, I began work on the boundary map of the district based on data collected in the survey. By combining the information from the survey and research done on site, Ruth could determine the period of significance for the area and buildings classified as being contributing, noncontributing but within the period of significance, or noncontributing. Through this consulting position, I have gained real world experience of how a National Register of Historic Places nomination takes place and also reinforcing the importance of the document in the field of Historic Preservation and the town of Mount Pleasant. The National Register nomination will be a useful planning tool for the buildings within the boundary to maintain the integrity of the district.



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Hamilton, Sarah

Room 350 (11:20 am - 11:35 am)
Pedagogical Application of the “Dance of the Dolls” Piano Suite by Dmitri Shostakovich

The standard piano repertoire is filled with interesting pieces written by Russian composers during the early 20th century. But, most of them are very difficult to play and there is a gap in the Russian pedagogical literature of that time period. Dmitri Shostakovich attempted to fill that void with his collection of works for children, the “Dance of the Dolls” suite. The suite is comprised of seven pieces of varying difficulty that capture the essence of Russian piano sound while staying within the reach of intermediate pianists. I will include a brief background on Shostakovich, and explore how concepts introduced in the suite apply to more advanced Russian piano literature.


Hayes, Caitlin

Room 330 (11:40 am - 11:55 am)
Physical Simulation of an Elbow Disarticulation for Persons with Sound Upper Extremities: Benefits and Fabrication Considerations

In the medical field, interactive learning is imperative for the acquisition of the knowledge and technical skills needed for proper patient care. In orthotics and prosthetics, this includes obtaining the necessary skills to fabricate the devices with which clinicians fit their patients. This fabrication gives students a different avenue for learning the function, construction, and advantages and disadvantages of the orthotic and prosthetic devices patients need. As a result, students who learn better through hands-on experience gain a new outlet for obtaining important information. In prosthetics, one of the best ways for students to gain fabrication experience is to create devices called prosthoses. These devices fit the student's sound limb, but are fabricated so the student can operate them as though he or she is an amputee. Thus, the hands-on experience of fabrication is compounded with the benefit of learning how to operate and wear a prosthesis. Consequently, the student learns empathy for his or her patients and can gain a more enlightened perspective on the struggles amputees face. To help students learn in each of these areas (i.e. prosthetic fabrication, patient empathy, and using different outlets for information gathering), I am currently constructing an elbow disarticulation prosthosis. With this prosthosis, I hope to reinforce my knowledge of upper prosthetic devices and componentry as well as gain insight into patient needs and difficulties while wearing an elbow disarticulation prosthesis. In addition, I hope to convey the usefulness of such a device in educating and training patients awaiting elbow disarticulation surgery.


Helmuth, Margaret

Room 330 (9:30 am - 9:45 am)
Logistic Regression in a Complex Survey Design: Artificial Sweeteners and Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome is generally defined as having at least three out of the five following disorders: increased waist circumference, high triglycerides, low HDL, high blood pressure, and increased fasting glucose. This coexistence of these disorders occurs more frequently than would be expected by random chance, and they are highly prevalent in Western Society. Many health organizations in the United States have proposed reducing calories as a way to combat many of these dangerous disorders. Among other recommendations, many of these health organizations suggest that drinking diet beverages is a good way to reduce calories. Diet beverages are sweetened by artificial sweeteners. Some research has been done on the effect of these artificial sweeteners on patients, but further research is needed. I propose to investigate the relationship between artificial sweeteners, by proxy of diet beverages, and the Metabolic Syndrome.  Using national nutrition data, collected from a complex survey design, statistical analyses were run to look at the connection between diet beverage consumption and Metabolic Syndrome. After adjusting for race, education, smoking status, BMI and age, people who drink more than one diet beverage a day have a 33.4% higher risk of having Metabolic Syndrome (p-value=0.0094). Additionally, after stratifying these results by gender, and again adjusting for the same factors, men who consume more than one diet beverage per day have a 63.5% higher risk of having Metabolic Syndrome (p-value=0.0051), while women who consume more than one diet beverage per day have no statistically significant increased risk of developing Metabolic Syndrome.


Hoffman, Lacey

Room 320 (10:30 am - 10:45 am)
Oz: the Great and Impotent (and the Witches We Love to Hate)

The greatest of the injustices done in Disney's Oz, the Great and Powerful are those not done by, but to the villain, Theodora. The villain becomes the infamous wicked witch of American popular culture but is not always this way. We are first introduced to her as a naïve, well-meaning individual who is seduced by the weak, fraudulent magician Oscar, who will become Oz. In spite of the fact that Oscar has never been to Oz and has no claims to its lands, it belongs to him before he touches—or crashes—down in one of its ponds. Prophecy foretells that he will kill the wicked witch and free Oz from her evil clutches; however, what Oz really does is reveal his sexual anxieties and Madonna-Whore complex. Oz, it seems, has restricted women to one of two roles: the sexual, wicked witch and the kind, maternal Glinda. Theodora is of course the former and, upon being rejected by the man who seduced her, is immediately transformed into the opposite moral extreme, revealing the patriarchal and restrictive depictions of femininity in American society. The injustice of this depiction is that is chains Theodora—and all female characters—to one moral realm while allowing the cad of a hero to roam freely until he is prepared to commit to a particular moral state.



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James, Jesse

Room 320 (9:30 am - 9:45 am)
Iron Lady: Impact of Ellen Johnson Sirleaf in the Country of Liberia

My topic covers a broad history of the country of Liberia over the last 30 years, and then talks greatly on the connection between its history and the significant impact the election of Ellen Johnson Sirleaf. She had a huge impact on her country as well as the world. It is pivotal to study her election in order to grasp many cross-connecting topics in history. For instance, she is the first female president of an African nation. This ties her into both African history as well as women’s study. I would like to present on her impact by giving some examples of the changes and influences caused by Sirleaf. This is done by tracking the progress her nation has made while she has been in office. I speak on her efforts to gain political office and as a result create peace in her country. I touch on her life leading up to her election as well. Her significance lies not only in her election but also in her actions as one of the most respected officials of her country. She is also the recipient of numerous prestigious peace and academic awards, her commitment to her people is unanswered by most. I researched Liberia’s history, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf’s life and impact in regards to Liberia, and critically analyze her Presidency overall.



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Kaltner, Rachel

Room 330 (10:10 am - 10:25 pm)
GaitCAP: Gait Capture App

The clinical treatment of lower limb orthotics and prosthetics patients is currently significantly limited due to the lack of access to objective and accurate feedback in terms of the effects of treatment on patients’ gait. No affordable, objective assessment tools are currently available that can readily be used by clinicians to both measure and document specific variables typically considered important during gait. Gait lab evaluations are typically expensive, and they are not readily accessible. Our project focuses on the creation of two prototype “levels” of applications (apps) for use with Apple products. Both apps will record a video of one or more gait cycles. The first app loads the video, and then allows the user to manually identify specific visible events that occur during gait by playing the video frame by frame. The second, more sophisticated level app performs the same video recording and playback functions, but automatically “recognizes” those visible events that occur during gait. Both applications record important gait events and produce metrics of that gait cycle. With the increasing number of requests by insurers for health care providers to provide object outcomes measures, our app could provide clinicians with evidence of efficacy of treatments and inform their practice, and allow them to complete a more extensive assessment in their clinic without incurring the expense of gait assessments completed in a gait lab. When performed in the clinical setting, the app’s results will provide clinicians with immediate and reliable feedback regarding the effects of their intervention on gait.


Keller, Tabatha

Room 320 (10:10 am - 10:25 am)
Rape as a Weapon of War: Sexual Violence in the DRC

Nearly 20 years ago, Rwanda was destroyed in 100 days of ethnic violence between Hutus and Tutsis. While this violence is widely known, the on-going chaos in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, an intimately related genocide, has received little coverage in the international media despite the death of nearly 6 million civilians since 1998. In addition to these fatalities, large numbers of women have been assaulted and raped, including nearly 1100 a day in 2008 alone. This presentation explores the use of rape as a weapon of war and its impact on the local culture, while also illustrating the lack of international attention. Tracing the methods of rehabilitating and assisting these victims, this research illustrates the need for continued advocacy in this continuing threat to women's rights and agency.



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Lingaur, Kenneth

Room 310A (11:20 am - 11:35 am)
The Downtown Clare Historic District

The research I will be presenting deals with the history of the Downtown Clare Historic District in Clare, Michigan. Research was conducted on the current fifty buildings which make up the district. The focus was to determine when each building was constructed, the appearance of the building at the time of construction, who owned the buildings and when, which businesses used the buildings and what they were used for, and how the physical appearance of the building changed over time. In addition, the history of Clare’s downtown and how it developed was studied. Particular focus was placed on the history of downtown Clare’s commerce, architecture, banks, hotels, agriculture, social history, and newspapers. The end result was the writing of the National Register of Historic Places Nomination for the Downtown Clare Historic District. The district met three of the four criteria for being listed on the National Register. The Criteria which Clare’s Downtown met where; A, as the center of activity for the Clare community, B for Alfred Doherty being a significant person who contributed to the development of the downtown, and C for its early twentieth century and Depression Era architecture. The nomination is currently waiting on approval from the Clare Downtown Development Authority and the Clare City Commission before being sent to the Michigan State Historic Preservation Office in March 2014.


Lonsdale, Chelsea

Room 350 (10:30 am - 10:45 am)
Traversing the Fringe: An Inquiry into Zine Culture

Zines are not-for-profit, handmade publications generally tied to personal and political issues. Uncensored and circulated by hand, zines push back against mass culture and mainstream media with sincere commitment to authenticity. As a writer and a teacher of First Year Writing who plans to bring zines into the classroom, these characteristics raise some questions about the potential for teaching with zines: What does participation in zine culture look like? Why are people making zines? What are potential implications of the personal and public work of zines in relation to writing instruction? Through analyzing themes in current scholarship and selected zines, as well as interviews with self-identified “zinesters,” I explore the participatory nature of zine culture, the motivation(s) behind zine production, and implications for the classroom. For this plenary session, I will present criteria that demonstrate key qualities of zines, and more importantly, the process by which zines are composed and distributed in order to support more authentic writing opportunities for students in First Year Writing.



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Mitchell, Lisa

Room 330 (9:50 am - 10:05 am)
Assisting Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers With Their Pedagogical and Content Knowledge of Box Plots With The Use of Hat Plots

Interpreting the shape of a distribution is an important concept in statistics. Students at all levels struggle to see a distribution as an aggregate. This implies that students focus on individual values instead of the whole shape of the distribution. One type of graph that is used to show a distribution is the box plot, also known as the box-and-whisker plot. This type of graph can be difficult for students to learn and interpret.
One tool for learning about box plots is hat plots. Hat plots are similar to box plots, but are drawn using a hat, where the crown represents the middle 50 percent of the data and a brim which represents the other 50 percent of the data. A hat plot can also be made with a computer program called TinkerPlots. This led me to ask if the concept of hat plots is taught to pre-service teachers, will it help them with their understanding of box plots? The following are my research questions: • Does the learning of hat plots help pre-service teachers with their understanding of box plots? • Does the learning of hat plots help pre-service teachers understand misconceptions their future students may have when creating box plots? • Does the learning of hat plots help pre-service teachers understand what type of sequencing of the curriculum would be helpful for their future students when learning box plots?


Moughnia, Zeinab

Room 320 (9:50 am - 10:05 am)
Islamism versus Islamic Feminism in the Middle East

The purpose of this research is to define and distinguish Mainstream Feminism in Islam from Islamist Feminism by shedding light on a few of the key differences amongst the two movements. My research examined the motives and ideologies of the people who led these movements: Nazira Zain Al-Din and Laila Ahmed are two of the Mainstream Islamic Feminists and Zaynab Al-Ghazali and Safinaz Qazim are two of the Islamist Feminists I discuss. I found out that it is critically important to understand what Islamic "Sharia" (Law), and Islamic "Fikh" (opinion) are, and the role they play in Islamic discourses. These narratives allow Muslims to develop such differing interpretations of the same faith relatively easily. The findings of this work warrant further investigation and have sparked even more questions regarding the role of women in Islam and the impact of Feminism on the Islamic world.



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Parcha, Joshua

Room 350 (12:00 pm  - 12:15 pm)
Study on the New York Yankees’ Organization Surrounding Alex Rodriguez’s 211-Game Suspension

The following case study uses Schein’s model of organizational culture as a lens to view the ethical culture of Major League Baseball (MLB) surrounding the recent 211-game suspension of New York Yankees’ third baseman Alex Rodriguez. A brief review of ethics in organizations will first be examined, followed by narrowing the focus toward ethics in sports organizations. The case will be explained, and an analysis of the case will be interpreted through each level of Schein’s model. The fact that Alex Rodriguez was allowed to play, and that the New York Yankees choose to play him even after his suspension was given, will be investigated further by this case study. Through demonstrating evidence of artifacts, values, and assumptions, this case study will reveal the ethical culture not only of Alex Rodriguez and the New York Yankees, but also of MLB in general.


Pereira, Paulo-Juarez

Room 320 (11:20 am  - 11:35 am)
Paulo Freire from a Back-to-the-Body Perspective

I propose to consider Paulo Freire's method ("Pedagogy of the Oppressed"), contrasting it with my Back-to-the-Body perspective, whereby I offer the human body as an exemplar for education. Freire's method can be construed as means to incite a permanent state of revolution based on distrust of authority as oppressive. His goal was to develop critical awareness. On one hand, it could be argued that a permanent state of revolution leads to political awareness and even to the acquisition of political power. On the other hand, the attitude of constant revolution seems ineffectual for developing a stable economy or a harmonious society. In contrast, in the Back-to-the-Body perspective, by using the human body as an exemplar, I propose education as a means to acquire higher and higher levels of unification (individual, family, society, nation, world), where society is seen as a unified organism rather than a gathering of conflicting parts. Whereas Paulo Freire perceives the essence of the human being as an expressive, self-assertive, and fully aware brain (with a highly developed ability to express his/her "word"), the Back to the Body perspective sees the human being as an integral totality of stomach (creative power), brain (mental faculties), and heart (emotions), who uses the word but expresses him/herself mostly in the creative act. The goal is not “my word,” as Paulo Freire suggests, but rather “my doing”—where “my doing” involves “my word” as well as “my feeling.” Freire’s awareness is only part of higher levels of the self; we must also include feelings and emotions.


Puchalski, Laura & Coleman, Shavonne

Room 320 (12:00 pm - 12:15 pm)
Seoul Zoom Project, Korea: Creating and Teaching Theatre A World Away

We will present our experience directing a youth theatre production in Seoul, Korea last summer as part of another students thesis project. Our presentation will include the process of being picked as directors, pre production work, rehearsal and final production. A special focus will be given to cultural intersections and differences in teaching and directing drama internationally. We will address questions such as "what issues are raised when teaching and directing youth internationally?" and "How do approaches to teaching drama change due to cultural differences?"



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Rickard, Rachel

Room 350 (11:00 am - 11:15 am)
The Importance of Multimodality in Diary of a Wimpy Kid and Dork Diaries

As graphic novels receive increased attention within the field of children’s literature, it is important to look at the immensely popular trend in middle grade literature that seems to be bridging the gap between picture books and graphic novels – multimodal diary books such as Jeff Kinney’s Diary of a Wimpy Kid and Rachel Renee Russell’s Dork Diaries. These books initially appear to be simple and are written off as “trendy” texts that can be used to draw in reluctant readers; however, the simplicity of language used and the inclusion of illustration mask complexity. In reality, the multimodal nature of these books both requires and develops complex literacy skills. My research draws on theory surrounding graphic novels and other texts that have been historically marginalized or considered “less” because of their use of visual images in addition to text. This essay explores how the actual experience of reading texts with images – and particularly the experience of reading first-person diary entries with “autographic” drawings – is far more complex than the “reluctant readers” label implies.


Rouleau, Erica

Room 350 (9:30 am - 9:45 am)
A Cumulative Risk Model of the Impact of Early Infant Health Problems on Parenting Stress and Toddler Behavior Outcomes

Many risk factors contribute to social-emotional well-being in children and associated parenting stress. Parents of low birth weight infants report more stress in their children’s early years (Singer et al., 1999). Due to the vast number of potential risks, but relatively low frequencies, we utilized a novel cumulative risk index (CRI) approach to examine outcomes. A sample of 120 women were recruited during pregnancy and data collected at 3 months post-partum assessed for low birth weight, birth complications, medical visits, and infant regulation. These variables were collapsed into a CRI to predict parenting stress and toddler social-emotional and behavioral outcomes at 1 and 2 years. Correlations indicated family income was significantly correlated with the CRI, so income was entered as a covariate in analyses. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that, controlling for family income, CRI significantly predicted [F(5, 59) = 3.03, p<.05] the following outcomes at age 1 year: externalizing behavior, F(1, 45) = 9.01, p<.01; dysregulation, F(1, 45) = 4.68, p<.05; parental distress, F(1, 45) = 6.81, p<.05; child difficulty, F(1, 45) = 6.25, p<.05; parent-child dysfunctional interaction, F(1, 45) = 5.29, p<.05. At age 2 years, CRI predicted [F(5, 59) = 2.74, p<.05] the following outcomes: externalizing behavior, F(1, 45) = 5.57, p<.05; dysregulation, F(1, 45) = 7.52, p<.01; child difficulty, F(1, 45) = 11.88, p<.01; parent-child dysfunctional interaction, F(1, 45) = 5.22, p<.05. Early intervention is critical in families with vulnerable infants, particularly those with greater numbers of risk factors, to ameliorate stress and adverse toddler outcomes.



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Schomisch, Ginny

Room 352 (9:30 am - 9:45 am)
Documenting Michigan Modern: Calvary United Methodist Church, Ann Arbor

Modernism in the mid-nineteenth century accompanied all aspects of daily life from literature, the arts, and architecture. Particularly in architecture, modernism broke away from trends of the past and, instead, searched for a new form of expression. Working with the local A2Modern group, who work to raise awareness of and appreciation for mid-century architecture and design in the Ann Arbor area, the Historic Preservation Program’s Preservation Research Techniques course researched multiple properties designed by local modern architects. These forward-thinking architects worked in a diverse community that celebrated the new technologies and materials that allows modernism to flourish. For my project, I researched Calvary United Methodist Church located at 1415 Miller Avenue in Ann Arbor that was designed in 1955 by architect Glenn Beach of Saginaw, Michigan. The architecture and design encompasses modern principles from the building’s overall form to the smallest details. In its nearly sixty year history, the church has retained those characteristics that make it a fine example of modern architecture in the Ann Arbor area. The church’s significance reaches more than just in its architecture, but also on the history of the plot of land and of its congregation. When combined, these aspects lead to a greater understanding of the development of Ann Arbor from the 1800’s through modernism, and into today.


Schrader, Sarah

Room 330 (11:00 am - 11:15 am)
Flight or Feed: Social Tolerance and Feeding Behavior in Three Species of African Tarantula

Sociality is well documented in many different animal taxa, including spiders, but has rarely been explored in tarantulas. The study of behavioral syndromes is an area that has recently encompassed spiders as animals that not only show behavioral differences among species, but different personalities between individual spiders. This study observed three species of African tarantula, two from the same genus (Heterothele gabonensis and H. villosella) and one which was unrelated (Hysterocrates gigas). Juveniles of these species have been documented sharing prey items in captivity, which is a rare event among tarantulas. Group and individual feeding trials were conducted to document time to prey capture and prey capture behaviors. While the Heterothele species were more likely to feed communally, they had higher cannibalism rates and longer prey capture times when feeding alone. H. gigas spiderlings were more tolerant of conspecifics, with some groups remaining intact for over a year, yet rarely fed communally. They had significantly lower capture times when hunting alone.


Staton, M. Kathryn

Room 350 (9:50 am - 10:05 am)
Parent Perspectives on Inclusive Education: Examining Outcomes for Individual Students

In 1954, the United States Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education, finding that the right to an education is necessary for succeeding in life. This ruling opened the opportunity for students with disabilities to receive public education. Advocates fought for student’s rights to attend schools, including among them parents of children with disabilities. Today, inclusive education provides students with disabilities educational experiences alongside same-aged peers in the regular education classroom. While inclusive education gained popularity in the 1990s, few schools in the United States have successfully implemented its practice. Inclusive education requires commitment from students, parents, school administrators, regular and special education teachers, and support service staff to be successful. This study examines the perspectives of parents of students with disabilities and their experiences of inclusive education. Analysis of common themes regarding inclusive education will provide insight into the benefits and burdens for students with disabilities.


Stuckey, Steven

Room 310A (12:00 pm - 12:15 pm)
Preservation in the Community: The Importance of a Historic American Buildings Survey of the Ladies Literary Clubhouse

The historic preservation movement has always been rooted in local community ties. From a group of Philadelphians restoring Independence Hall to Michigan residents saving the old state capital building, preservation thrives from support of local activists. This tradition has been the cornerstone of the historic preservation movement and remains a building block to educating the next generation of preservationists, a theme that resonates throughout EMU’s graduate program. Students in the past have used Ypsilanti as tool for studying architecture, fostering a relationship that continues today. Recently, one of Ypsilanti’s oldest organizations—the Ladies Literary Club—was the subject of a preservation project to document historically significant architecture in the community. Following the Department of Interior’s Historic American Buildings Survey guidelines, the Ladies Literary Clubhouse was researched, photographed, and recorded. Archival investigations, personal interviews, and field surveys were conducted to gather information on the structure and synthesized into a detailed report for submission to the Library of Congress. The significance of the Ladies Literary Clubhouse project has a profound impact on community and state history. On the community level, the Ladies Literary Clubhouse represents a local organization that has made abundant efforts to maintain a portion of Ypsilanti history since purchasing the property in 1914. From the state perspective, the Clubhouse is a well preserved, pre-Civil War era structure that represents a period of growth in Michigan’s earliest years as a state. This structure is listed as both a local historic structure and is in a National Register of Historic Places historic district.



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Tanabe, Hiroki

Room 352 (11:20 am  - 11:35 am)
Discovering Linguistics and Behavioral Effects of Language Learners

The more learners speak their target language with native speakers, the more successful their language learning becomes. In other words, it is important that learners have more opportunities to talk with native speakers of their target language. In order to do that, learners should encourage listeners to listen more and make them feel comfortable. By interviewing two non-native Japanese speakers, the one who gives a good impression to native Japanese speakers and the other who does not with the same questions and topics. This research addresses why the former speaker is able to give a good impression to native Japanese speaker and the other speaker is not in aspect of nonverbal and verbal behaviors.



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Weber, Gail

Room 352 (10:30 am - 10:45 am)
Balancing Aging in Place, Universal Design, Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines, and Individual Needs of People Living with ALS in Residential Modifications

This research and design project examines the philosophies and psychological factors of aging in place and universal design, as well as the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG), and how they can be realistically applied in interior design for people living with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a terminal illness with an approximate two- to five-year prognosis. The case study explores the design needs and preferences of one couple living with ALS. Analysis of the case study suggests that a complete universal design or ADAAG-compliant overhaul in the home is ill-advised for these subjects, given their modest budget and limited time for a person with ALS to implement and utilize extensive home modifications. The findings suggest prioritizing modifications to provide function and accessibility in key areas of the home, meeting the subjects’ preference for design that doesn’t look institutional, maintaining or improving the home’s real estate value, and considering possible future needs of the surviving spouse as s/he ages. In the first version of the design, universal design principles and accessibility guidelines are prioritized and strategically applied to maximize autonomy, engagement, and quality of life for the subject living with ALS and the spouse in the role of caregiver. In the second version of the design, universal design principals are applied throughout the home and landscape in a project of larger scope and budget, which would be appropriate for a person who will live in the home long-term.


Weerakoon, Darshani

Room 330 (11:20 am - 11:35 am)
Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of Small Molecules as Inhibitors of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) is a member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. Excessive levels of PAI-1 inhibit urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), which is liable for the regulation of fibrinolysis as well as for the development of different pathological diseases like obesity, metabolic syndrome, tumor invasion and metastasis, and coronary heart disease. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration approved treatment for inactivating higher levels of PAI-1. Therefore, PAI-1 is considered an attractive drug target. Due to PAI-1’s different structural conformations and multiple binding domains, development of PAI-1 inhibitors is a challenging situation. In this research study, we describe the synthesis and evaluation of novel low molecular weight amides containing various moieties, including para-chlorobenzyl, polyphenols, oxindoles, or isatin-based units. By changing the architectural scheme of these compounds we will effectively change the potency of our inhibitors, and will be able to develop a structure-activity relationship that will allow us to design a more potent small molecule as a PAI-1 inhibitor. Therefore, the synthesis and structure-activity relationship of those novel small molecules are discussed.


Wetzel, Amanda

Room 310A (11:00 am - 11:15 am)
Toledo Harbor Light: A Comprehensive History

The Toledo Harbor Light was opened in 1904 as a light station in Lake Erie. The lighthouse was put at the entrance of the Maumee Bay to aid ships and freighters on Lake Erie coming into Monroe or Toledo. Many of these ships were, and still are, bringing goods to these industrial centers or aiding in the exportation of goods from the area. The Toledo Harbor Light was built of brick and steel on a crib in Lake Erie. This lighthouse used a 3 ½ Order Fresnel Lens, that can now be seen at Maumee State Park where it was moved following the decommissioning of the light station. This lighthouse employed countless members of the Light Station Service, the Coast Guard, and even the United States Navy. The light became automated in 1966, as did many other lights around the Great Lakes. The lighthouse was closed in the late 1980’s, and sat forgotten for many years. When interested local individuals heard that the Coast Guard was planning to destroy this unique lighthouse, they decided to take a stand to save the light. The Toledo Harbor Light Preservation Society came together to save this light, and it is their plan, with the help of grants and other donations, to open the light for visitors. I was asked to aid in the creation of the first detailed history of the lighthouse for the society, visitors, and the Toledo community.



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Zielinski, Michael

Room 330 (12:00 pm - 12:15 pm)
Determination of thiamine in solution by UV-visible spectroscopy: the effect of interactions with gold nanoparticles

The method presented here provides the foundation for a simple and selective qualitative determination of thiamine in solution. Gold nanoparticles in the presence of thiamine results in the formation of a secondary peak in the absorption spectra of the mixture. This can be used as an indicator of thiamine. This is useful for the qualitative analysis of solutions, and may provide an alternative to other methods for evaluating blood and other biological systems. This method uses gold nanoparticles (20-30 nm) and investigates their selective interaction with thiamine, compared to the interactions with selected amino acids. The interaction was measured using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The formation of secondary absorption peaks was correlated to a change in the shape of the gold nanoparticles. A limit of detection was estimated and the relative selectivity of the method was evaluated. The main challenge here was coping with the degradation of the thiamine and nanoparticle solutions. The degradation was clearly related to the nanoparticle solutions, although further studies are required to find the exact cause. The degradation was measured over a period of time and causes for it were proposed. Further studies will provide a further understanding of the usefulness, including further applications of this method.