Eastern Michigan University
Eastern Michigan University
Eastern Michigan University
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Eastern Michigan University Library

Library Electronic Reference Sources

The EMU Library subscribes to a growing collection of online reference resources which include dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, company information, style guides, etc.

This site contains links to over 400 online reference titles, organizes them by discipline, and allows you to browse descriptions of the titles. Disciplines include subcategories. For example, biology includes subcategories for botany, genetics, molecular and microbiology, zoology and animal resources. Multidisciplinary titles are usually listed under multiple disciplines.

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To search the content within a specific title, you must first go to that title by clicking on its link and then use the "search" option found on its homepage.

The following publisher web links allow you to directly search the content of multiple electronic reference books and then display the associated content from those titles:

Gale Virtual Reference Library

Sage eReference Books

    Main Subject: Sociology


Encyclopedia of Aging
Encompasses all aspects of aging, covering a variety of disciplines including biology, medicine, economics, law psychology, sociology and history, and also explores related issues such as religion, spirituality, and ethics. Also provides a topical outline, primary source documents, addresses, and Web sites. 4 volumes.

Handbook of Death and Dying
In the two volumes of this handbook, the contributors address approximately 100 pivotal topics, each of which subsumes and incorporates several more basic concepts and behaviors. The essays generated to discuss these topics direct special attention to the constituent concepts and social patterns within the exploration of the larger topical concern. Each chapter is of journal-article length and addresses its general topic with appropriate detail and elaboration.


(Encyclopedia of Sociology. 2nd ed)
This classic reference has been updated to reflect many changes in society and in the field of sociology in recent years. Articles covering core issues such as race, poverty, violence, economics, pregnancy and abortion have been updated and expanded, and completely new articles have been written on topics such as the Internet, privacy and epidemiology.

(International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences: 2nd Edition)
Covers scholarship and fields that have emerged and matured since the publication of the original international edition. Highlights the expanding influence of economics in social science research and features new articles and biographies contributed by scholars from around the world on a wide array of global topics in the social sciences. William A. Darity, Jr. Edition: 2nd ed. Macmillan Reference 2008

21st Century Sociology
The model followed for this Handbook is one of inclusiveness in that a large number of topics are covered, but in so doing, the authors address each topic in a thorough, comprehensive manner. Although there is certain to be some modest theoretical and methodological overlap between some of the topics, each chapter is developed to reflect the unique historical development of the topic, offers a general overview of the current state of knowledge, and provides suggestions for how the area of inquiry is destined to develop as we move well into the twenty-first century. These topics are both interesting and informative in that the chapter content offers the reader insight into the rich legacy and development of the discipline of sociology while also providing the requisite reference information for advanced study and research into each substantive area. In this regard, there is a sufficient amount of information to support the rich sociological legacy of enabling public policy-oriented readers ample opportunity to learn while also providing important insights for those who enthusiastically embrace social activism as a part of the sociological enterprise. Published November 2006.

Abortion: a Reference Handbook
Abortion [electronic resource] : a reference handbook / Marie Costa. Abortion United States Handbooks, manuals, etc. ABC-CLIO, c1996. HQ767.5.U5 C67 1996eb

American attitudes: what Americans think about the issues that shape their lives
American attitudes [electronic resource] : what Americans think about the issues that shape their lives / by the editors of New Strategist Publications. Edition: 5th ed. Publisher: Ithaca, N.Y. : New Strategist Publications, c2008. Description: Computer File xiii, 417 p. : ill. ; 26 cm. Contents Introduction -- Executive summary: what Americans think -- The public arena -- Government and politics -- Freedom -- Science -- Religion -- Work and money -- Family and friends -- Race -- Personal outlook -- Sexual attitudes and behavior -- Health -- Appendix -- Index. Subject(s): Public opinion --United States. Social surveys --United States. Americans --Attitudes. United States --Social conditions --1980- United States --Politics and government --1993-2001. United States --Politics and government --2001-

American Folklore : an Encyclopedia
American folklore: an encyclopedia / edited by Jan Harold Brunvand. Publisher: New York : Garland Pub., 1998, c1996. Description: xviii, 794 p. : ill. ; 29 cm. Subject(s): Folklore --North America --Encyclopedias. North America --Social life and customs --Encyclopedias.

American Masculinities: a Historical Encyclopedia
This is an encyclopedia about American masculinities. Its purpose is to provide a reference guide and an introduction to the many ways in which men have defined, imagined, and experienced male identity in the social, cultural, and political contexts of the United States. American Masculinities: A Historical Encyclopedia Edited by: Bret Carroll California State University, Stanislaus Pub Date:October 2003 Pages: 576

Analysis of Clinical Trials Using SAS: a Practical Guide
Title: Analysis of clinical trials using SAS [electronic resource] : a practical guide / Alex Dmitrienko ... [et al.] Publisher: Cary, NC : SAS Institute, 2005. Description: 419 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.

Blackwell Companion to Social Theory
Title: The Blackwell companion to social theory [electronic resource] / edited by Bryan S. Turner. Edition: 2nd ed. Publisher: Malden, Mass. : Blackwell Publishers, 2000.

Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology
Title: The Blackwell dictionary of sociology [electronic resource] : a user’s guide to sociological language / Allan G. Johnson. Edition: 2nd ed. Publisher: Oxford, OX, UK ; Malden, Mass., USA : Blackell Publishers, 2000.

Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Psychology
Title: The Blackwell encyclopedia of social psychology [electronic resource] / edited by Antony S.R. Manstead and Miles Hewstone ; advisory editors, Susan T. Fiske ... [et al.]. Edition: [Pbk. rpt. ed., 1999]. Publisher: Oxford, UK ; Cambridge, Mass., USA : Blackwell, 1999, 1995.

Countries and Their Cultures.
Presents the cultural similarities within a country that set it apart from others by examining over 200 countries to document the myriad ways in which culture defines and separates the nations of the world as much as geographical borders do. Surveys each country's shared values, behaviors and cultural variations from foods and rituals to pastimes and arts, using a standard entry format for easy comparison. Provides illustrations, photographs and maps. 4 volumes.

Encyclopedia of African-American Heritage
"This volume provides thorough yet succinct information about Africans who remained on the continent as well as those in the diaspora (the movement of African people to and from the continent for over a millennium). This focus is primarily on indigenous Africans and blacks in the United States but also includes information about descendants of the African motherland...." Publisher: New York : Facts On File, c1997

Encyclopedia of Aging
Encompasses all aspects of aging, covering a variety of disciplines including biology, medicine, economics, law psychology, sociology and history, and also explores related issues such as religion, spirituality, and ethics. Also provides a topical outline, primary source documents, addresses, and Web sites. 4 volumes.

Encyclopedia of American Immigration
Encyclopedia of American Immigration traces the scope and sweep of U.S. immigration from the earliest colonial settlements to the present, focusing on critical issues as well as the groups of people involved. Every major immigrant group and every era are fully documented and examined through detailed analysis of social, legal, political, economic, and demographic factors.

Encyclopedia of American Urban history
The two volumes of the Encyclopedia of American Urban History offer both a summary and an interpretation of the field. With contributions from leading academics in their fields, this authoritative resource offers an interdisciplinary approach by covering topics from economics, geography, anthropology, politics, and sociology. Edited by: David R Goldfield University of North Carolina, Charlotte Pub Date: 12-07-2006 Pages: 1056

Encyclopedia of Applied Developmental Science
Encyclopedia of Applied Developmental Science Applied developmental science (ADS) seeks to advance the integration of developmental research with actions that promote positive development and/or enhance the life chances of vulnerable children, adolescents, young and old adults, and their families. There are three integrated components of ADS activity: theory/research, professional practice (i.e., the enactment of the services and/or the generation of the products associated with fields such as psychology, education, social work, nursing, and youth development programming), and policy and program development and evaluation. The goals of this integration are to (a) promote positive human development, (b) strengthen and enhance family life, (c) build communities and community collaborations from an asset- or strength-based orientation, and (d) engage policy to create and sustain efforts at enriching civil society. Indeed, the systemic interrelation of these four substantive foci (positive human development, family life enhancement, community building, and policy engagement for civil society) justifies the three domains of activity for the field (theory/ research, practice, and evaluation) and has accounted for the burgeoning of university-community collaboration to further this work. The substantive foci of the Encyclopedia of Applied Developmental Science involves describing and explaining all four of these foci in regard to theory/ research, professional practice, and evaluation.

Encyclopedia of Behavior Modification and Cognitive Behavior Therapy
This three-volume work provides a thorough examination of components comprising behavior modification, behavior therapy, cognitive behavior therapy, and applied behavior analysis for both adult and child populations in a variety of settings (e.g., outpatient, institutional, and classroom). The specific volumes are as follows: Volume I: Adult Clinical Applications, Volume II: Child Clinical Applications, and Volume III: Educational Applications. Although the focus is on technical applications, the hundreds of entries also provide historical context to apprise readers of the parameters in which behavior therapists have worked, including research issues and strategies. Entries also contain descriptions of assessment, ethical concerns, theoretical differences, and the unique contributions of key figures in the field. In so doing, there are both biographical sketches and autobiographical sketches for the interested reader.

Encyclopedia of Business Ethics and Society
The Encyclopedia of Business Ethics and Society is composed of almost 900 entries arranged in alphabetical order. The entries range in length from about 500 words to almost 11,000 words. The Encyclopedia embraces commerce in all its ethical and social dimensions. This ambition requires comprehensive and fairly lengthy essays on such crucial topics as justice, freedom, stakeholder theory, and regulation. At the other end of the spectrum, very brief essays introduce important personages in the field, while other similarly brief entries explain the nature and function of various organizations.

Encyclopedia of Children and Childhood: In History and Society.
This 3-vol. set presents the social and cultural history of childhood from antiquity to the present. Children and Childhood examines this history through articles on education, parenting, child labor, economics, images of childhood, children's literature, play, toys and games, health, physiology, law, the criminal justice system and social welfare. Encyclopedia of Children and Childhood: In History and Society. Paula S. Fass, ed. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2004. 1056 pp. 3 vol

Encyclopedia of Children, Adolescents, and the Media
Provides cross-disciplinary coverage from the fields of psychology, education, media studies and communication, sociology, and public policy. Offers a cross-cultural perspective with contributing authors from around the globe and entries on the media in Europe and Asia. Includes entries covering television, film, video games, the Internet and World Wide Web, magazines, music, and more. Explores complex and difficult topics such as violence, sex, rating systems and warning labels, attention deficit disorder, body image and eating disorders, popular music lyrics, advertising, digital music downloading, parental involvement, policymaking, and child development

Encyclopedia of Civil Rights in America
The Encyclopedia of Civil Rights in America is a comprehensive, alphabetically-organized reference source on the human rights and civil liberties that are legally recognized in the United States. The 677 entries address civil rights issues from a variety of perspectives, such as race, gender, age, medical status or conditions, physical and mental challenges, group membership, religion, and many others.

Encyclopedia of Community
Community itself is a concept, an experience, and a central part of being human. Whether the reader is a student, researcher, or professional in the field of psychology, sociology, or even economics, this three-volume work will provide the necessary definitions of community beyond traditional views. Arranged in an A-to-Z fashion, the Encyclopedia can also be viewed topically via a Reader's Guide. This allows for interdisciplinary "compare and contrast" among topics such as types of communities, social capital, technology, urban life, politics and law, community design, and global studies.

Encyclopedia of Disability
The Encyclopedia of Disability was conceived in a broad context. While there has been much research on disability, the research presented in these volumes has usually been approached from an interdisciplinary perspective whenever possible and broken into manageable topics for investigation.

Encyclopedia of Environment and Society
Encyclopedia of environment and society [electronic resource] / Paul Robbins, general editor. Gale virtual reference library. Publisher: Thousand Oaks : SAGE Publications, Inc., 2007. Description: Computer File Social ecology --Encyclopedias. Human ecology --Social aspects --Encyclopedias. Social change --Environmental aspects --Encyclopedias.

Encyclopedia of Evaluation
The Encyclopedia of Evaluation is a who, what, where, how, and why of evaluation. Evaluation is a profession, a practice, a discipline—and it has developed and continues to develop through the ideas and work of evaluators and evaluation theorists working in real places with high hopes for social improvement. Each individual entry in this book gives a glimpse of a particular aspect of this development, and taken as a whole, the encyclopedia captures the history of evaluation in all these many ways.

Encyclopedia of Food and Culture.
A three-volume survey of food and its place in human culture and society, presented through 600 alphabetically sorted entries. Features multidisciplinary coverage of such topics as comfort food, ethnicity and food, medieval banquets, and nutrient composition, among many others. Includes photographs, illustrations, sidebars, recipes, menus, and timelines. For students and general readers.

Encyclopedia of Health and Behavior
The Encyclopedia of Health and Behavior is organized in an A–Z (alphabetical) format rather than by specific themes. In developing the topics that were to be included, however, the editors did rely on several different content areas or themes. These themes included, but were not limited to, the following: Theories and methods in health and behavior (e.g., the theory of planned behavior, health belief model, and multilevel methods theory) Biopsychosocial interactions and basic behavioral and social processes (e.g., behavioral genetics, psychoneuroimmunology, and cardiovascular reactivity). Epidemiology of risk and protective factors (e.g., the relationship to health and illness of factors such as diet, bereavement, acculturation, social capital, anxiety, social support, and stress) Health promotion and disease prevention (e.g., HIV/AIDS prevention, health promotion in schools, tailored communications, and church-based interventions) Treatment and rehabilitation (e.g., behavioral and psychological treatment of diabetes, drug abuse, fibromyalgia, asthma, headaches, and pain; doctorpatient communication; motivational interviewing; and adherence) Policy and organizational issues (e.g., health care costs and behavior, and health and behavior organizations)

Encyclopedia of Homelessness
The goal of the Encyclopedia of Homelessness is to summarize our knowledge of homelessness. This includes describing the patterns of homelessness in the past, focusing on the recent and current situation in the United States, and sampling homelessness around the world. Entries cover causes; history; legal issues, advocacy, and policy; legislation and programs; lifestyle and health problems; organizations; research; services and service settings; size and perceptions; subpopulations and lifestyles; and world issues and perspectives. Descriptive articles cover homelessness today in eight major American cities and more than thirty cities and nations around the world. These entries allow for quick and easy comparisons

Encyclopedia of Human Development
Encyclopedia of Human Development The field of human development focuses on the growth and development of the human being, including physical, social, psychological, and emotional development from conception through death. Under the broad umbrella of the term human development are found countless topics, many of which are explored in this encyclopedia. Through approximately 650 entries, experts in each of the areas contained in these pages contribute an overview and an explanation of the major topics in the field of human development.

Encyclopedia of Leadership
SCOPE AND COVERAGE The encyclopedia's entries fall into eleven general topical categories. The Reader's Guide at the front of each volume classifies the entries in accordance with this scheme and includes several additional categories that direct readers to related entries. The eleven general topical categories are Biographies Case Studies Domains Study of Leadership Followership Women and Gender Personal Characteristics of Leaders Power Situational Factors Leadership Styles Leadership Theories

Encyclopedia of Measurement and Statistics
As in many other encyclopedias, the Encyclopedia of Measurement and Statistics is organized in alphabetical order, from A through Z. However, particular themes were identified early on that could be used to organize conceptually the information and the entries. These themes or major topic areas constitute the Reader's Guide, which appears on page xiii. Categories such as Experimental Methods, Qualitative Methods, and Organizations and Publications are only a few of the many that help organize the entire set of contributions

Encyclopedia of Multicultural Psychology
Culture is important, and the focus of the Encyclopedia of Multicultural Psychology is to provide an index to the terms, concepts, and issues in the main-stream of field. Professional organizations since the 1970s have advocated and demonstrated the need for more comprehensive ideas when it comes to human behavior that include cultural background when studying psychological constructs. And, since the 1970s, international and ethnic minority psychologists alike reflected growing concerns regarding the meaning of psychology for all peoples. The field of multicultural and cross-cultural psychology has a relatively short history and is making its way into the foundations for training new psychologists. To this end, national accrediting organizations in psychology and licensure boards across the country continue to refine mandates for training that include a focus on multicultural psychology. As more multicultural research is compiled and the findings disseminated, the need for comprehensive texts like the Encyclopedia of Multicultural Psychology become stronger.

Encyclopedia of Recreation and Leisure in America
A two-volume survey of the pursuit of leisure in the United States, from Colonial to modern times, presented through 271 alphabetically arranged entries. Coverage includes specific types of recreational activities as well as important themes in the history of leisure. For students, researchers, and general readers.

Encyclopedia of Religious and Spiritual Development
This encyclopedia aims to provide a better understanding the similarities and differences between world religions and spiritualities, between expressions of the divine and between experiences of the transcendent. It does so, however, with a focus on the development of religiosity and spirituality.

Encyclopedia of Social Psychology
Encyclopedia of social psychology Publisher: Thousand Oaks : Sage Online, 2007 Description: Computer File The Encyclopedia of Social Psychology is designed to make it easy for outsiders to gain access to and benefit from this rapidly growing and important field. It provides brief, clear, readable introductory explanations to the vast number of ideas and concepts that make up the intellectual and scientific content of the field.

Encyclopedia of Social Theory
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Encyclopedia of Social Theory. The purpose of an encyclopedia is to summarize and codify knowledge in a given field. This is in contrast to a handbook, which offers essays on cutting-edge research in a field, or a dictionary, which provides short, to-the-point definitions of key concepts in a field (Sica 2001). Certainly, an encyclopedia also does some of the things that one finds in handbooks and dictionaries. Thus, the Encyclopedia of Social Theory offers handbook-like (albeit briefer) entries on cutting-edge topics, such as globalization, consumption, complexity theory, and actor network theory, and it provides state-of-the-art interpretations of long-established theories. Also, like a dictionary, the entries in this encyclopedia provide basic introductions to key ideas, concepts, schools, and figures in social theory. However, the entries tend to be far longer and offer much more depth than those found in dictionaries

Encyclopedia of Social Welfare History in North America
In the Encyclopedia of Social Welfare History in North America, we endeavored to bring together basic information on the history of social welfare in the three major countries that constitute North America—Canada, Mexico, and the United States of America. Our intention was to provide readers with information about how these three nations have dealt with social welfare issues, some similar across borders, others unique, as well as to describe important events, developments, and the lives and work of some key contributors to social welfare developments. Experts on the history of social welfare in Canada, Mexico, and the United States contributed entries to the volume. We have defined social welfare broadly, to include education, informal mutual assistance, the development of the social work profession, and voluntary charitable activities as well as state-supported public welfare activities. (The encyclopedia does not, however, attempt to cover the history of social work practice or the development of specialized education for social work or the other human services.)

Encyclopedia of Sociology
Encyclopedia of sociology/ Edgar F. Borgatta, editor in chief ; Rhonda J. V. Montgomery, managing editor. Edition: 2nd ed. Publisher: New York, N.Y. : Macmillan Reference USA, c2000. This classic reference has been updated to reflect many changes in society and in the field of sociology in recent years. Articles covering core issues such as race, poverty, violence, economics, pregnancy and abortion have been updated and expanded, and completely new articles have been written on topics such as the Internet, privacy and epidemiology.

Encyclopedia of Terrorism
Although not a textbook, and certainly not a monograph, the encyclopedia provides detailed discussions of the who, what, where, when, and why of terrorism, including the September 11 attacks and their ramifications. Providing a comprehensive, global coverage of terrorism with more than 300 in-depth entries, readers have the wherewithal to understand the component parts of terrorism or develop a more exhaustive study of a topic. The latter is made possible by crossreferences to related entries at the end of each entry, as well as a detailed list of further readings

Encyclopedia of War & American Society
This encyclopedia includes substantial essays on the wars Americans have fought, their civilian and military leaders, and their major military institutions. It goes well beyond those subjects, however, in two significant ways. First, it probes the connections between our wartime expeditions and the experiences of the larger American society. This exploration is not limited to years of war; it also includes discussions of those aspects of society that bear the marks of wartime experience after the conflicts end.

Encyclopedia of World Poverty
THE THREE VOLUMES of the Encyclopedia of World Poverty contain some 800 original, previously unpublished articles written by over 100 independent or affiliated scholars. This encyclopedia is intended for use as an authoritative and rigorous source on poverty and related issues. It provides extensive and current information and insight into the contemporary debate on poverty. It can also be used as a reference to other sources through its cross-references and bibliographies. It is a timely project; 2005 was marked by a declaration of concern with poverty by world leaders at the G-8 summit and at the World Economic Forum.

Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Health
Gale encyclopedia of mental health [electronic resource] / Laurie J. Fundukian and Jeffrey Wilson, editors. Publisher: Detroit : Thomson Gale, c2008. Description: Book Psychiatry --Encyclopedias. Mental illness --Encyclopedias.

Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America
Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America contains 152 original essays (about 8,000-12,000 words each) on specific minority and ethnic groups in the U.S., with an emphasis on culture (religions, holidays, customs, language) in addition to information on historical background and settlement patterns. The Encyclopedia also covers ethnoreligious groups such as Jews, Chaldeans and Amish.

Handbook of Death and Dying
In the two volumes of this handbook, the contributors address approximately 100 pivotal topics, each of which subsumes and incorporates several more basic concepts and behaviors. The essays generated to discuss these topics direct special attention to the constituent concepts and social patterns within the exploration of the larger topical concern. Each chapter is of journal-article length and addresses its general topic with appropriate detail and elaboration.

Handbook of Human Factors Testing and Evaluation
Title: Handbook of human factors testing and evaluation [electronic resource] / edited by Samuel G. Charlton, Thomas G. O’Brien. Edition: 2nd ed. Publisher: Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002.

Legalized Gambling: a Reference Handbook
Legalized gambling [electronic resource] : a reference handbook / William N. Thompson. Gambling Handbooks, manuals, etc. Gambling United States Handbooks, manuals, etc. Gambling Canada Handbooks, manuals, etc. ABC-CLIO, c1997. HV6710 .T48 1997eb

Oxford handbook of sociology and organization studies: classical foundations / edited by Paul S. Adler.
We live in a society of organisations, organisations which have profound and pervasive effects on our lives at work and beyond. Contemporary society and its organisations are in a period of accelerated, profound change. In this book, leading sociology and organsational scholars consider how 'classic' sociologists can help make sense of change.

Sage Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods
Sage encyclopedia of social science research methods / Michael S. Lewis-Beck, Alan Bryman, Tim Futing Liao, editors. Publisher: Thousand Oaks, Calif. : Sage, c2004. Social sciences --Research --Encyclopedias. Social sciences --Methodology --Encyclopedias.

Social Science Research Methods
The cardinal aim of this encyclopedia is to provide our readers—be they students, academics, or applied researchers—with an introduction to a vast array of research methods by giving an account of their purposes, principles, developments, and applications. The approximately 1,000 entries, many of which are extensive treatments of the topics and contain recent developments, can be of great use to the novice or the experienced researcher alike.

Studies in Human Sexuality: a Selected Guide
Studies in human sexuality [computer file] : a selected guide / Suzanne G. Frayser, Thomas J. Whitby. Edition: 2nd ed.Publisher: Englewood, Colo. : Libraries Unlimited, 1995. Description: xx, 737 p. ; 25 cm. Subject(s): Sex --Bibliography. Sex --Reference books --Bibliography.

United States at War
Title: The United States at war [electronic resource] / edited by John C. Super. Publisher: Pasadena, Calif. : Salem Press, c2005. 2 v. (xvii, 831 p.) : ill., maps ; 24 cm. v. 1. Revolutionary War--World War I -- v. 2. World War II--Post-Cold War conflicts