Eastern Michigan University

Eastern Michigan University

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EMU McNair Scholar Research Abstracts

KHADIJA ABBAS

MENTOR: DANIEL CLEMANS

"The Synergistic Effects of Probiotic Microorganisms on the Microbial Production of Butyrate In Vitro"

Butyrate producing microbiota perform a number of activities important in supporting the normal function of the human gastrointes­tinal tract. The goal of this study was to determine the synergistic ef­fects of lactate- and butyrate-producing bacteria on butyrate production in vitro co-culture. PCR was used to detect the genes butyrate kinase and butyryl-CoA CoA transferase that contribute to butyrate production, in a panel of representative gut microbiota. Preliminary data suggested that two Clostridium sp. (ASF 500 and ASF 502) and one Eubacterium sp. (ASF492) possessed at least one of these genes for butyrate production. Co-culture experiments mixing a lactate-producer with a butyrate-pro­ducer showed an increase in butyrate production. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to estimate the number of bacteria in co-culture by target­ing the 16S rDNA gene. Butyrate levels in the mixing experiment were analyzed using GC/MS. Preliminary results showed that butyrate genes are present in Clostridium sp. ASF 500 and ASF 502, however, assess­ment of butyrate production showed the butyrate levels do not correlate with the results from qPCR.

ANDREA APEL

MENTORS: EMERY STEPHENS AND KATHLEEN SEGAR

"German Lieder: Songs for Women"

My research identifies German Lieder composed specifically for female singers. Female-specific songs were determined through textual analysis of the solo works from four influential composers of this era, Franz Schubert (1797–1828), Robert Schumann (1810–1856), Johannes Brahms (1833–1897), and Hugo Wolf (1860–1903). Research methodsinclude existing data, biographical studies, sociological studies, and performance practice. Also, personal study and performance through a public solo recital of female-specific works gave me an opportunity to sing Frauenliebe und-leben by Robert Schumann, Rat einer Alten by Hugo Wolf, Mädchenlied by Johannes Brahms, and Gretchen am Spinnrade by Franz Schubert for the first time. These works are discussed in detail. For further reference, an appendix is provided of female-specific lieder from the selected composers, Schubert, Schumann, Brahms, and Wolf.

LATASHA BECKER

MENTOR: BETTY BROWN-CHAPPELL

"Identifying the disparities: A Detroit/Ann Arbor Study"

LASONYA BROWN

MENTOR: CHRISTINE KARSHIN

"A Preliminary Quantitative Investigation of African American College Students Attitudes, Behaviors and Knowledge about Sexual Health"

Purpose: To examine factors that influence African American college students' sexual health at Eastern Michigan University. Methodology A sample of 66 African American college students completed an online 32-item survey that measured sample demographics, attitudes, behaviors and knowledge about sexual health. Results: The results of this study showed that 40 percent of participants reported using condoms all of the time. However, participants also reported risky sexual behavior patterns that led to unintended pregnancies (23%) and STI infection (35%). Conclusion: The sexual health practices of African American college students are not unlike the sexual health practices of college students in general. Age, gender, GPA and Greek affiliation were shown to impact one's overall sexual health.

Jacinda Bunting

Faculty Mentor: Kenneth Rusiniak

"The Sensitivity in Methods of Measuring Conditioned Flavor Aversions and Conditioned Flavor Preferences"

This project investigated a multiple measurement procedure to assess conditioned flavor aversions (CFA) and conditioned flavor prefer­ences (CFP) in male albino rats. Volume consumed is currently the most common and often the sole method used. Most studies employ group designs, whereas this study used a single-subject design to compare be­havior patterns and responses between individual rats. Response mea­surements include: total licks, lick rate, lick patterns, volume (ml) con­sumed, volume (ml) per lick. Strong CFA showed consistent decreases in total licks, lick rate, total volume, and volume per lick. CFP was evident, although not consistent, in total licks, lick rate, total volume (ml), and volume (ml) per lick. Volume per lick measurement in CFP revealed that three of the four rats drank more per lick on the posttest flavor day after training. This measure may be a good indicator of CFP. This study pro­vides normative data for evaluating the effects of drugs on neurotrans­mitters that modulate CFA and CFP.

Lianna Cecil

Faculty Mentor: Lois Mahoney

"Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting In The United States"

This study documents and reviews the current state of corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting in the United States. Prior accounting research examining CSR reporting mostly analyzes annual reports. However, recent evidence suggests that with the increase in companies using standalone CSR reports, the level of disclosure of environmental information within the annual report has decreased (Frost, 2007). Results suggest that despite the lack of regulations requiring U.S. companies to publish CSR reports, the number of companies doing so has grown each year. According to Mathews (1997), "continuing the tradition of empirical research aimed at documenting [the practice] of social and environmental accounting...is valuable as a record of the current state of organizational disclosure and, therefore, of the distance that remains to be travelled along the path to full accountability by economic actors" (p. 504). Consequently this research seeks to document the current status of standalone CSR reporting in the United States. My findings suggest that there is a growth trend in U.S. companies issuing standalone CSR reports, however, there are very few reports that are audited or assured in the United States.

Nikki Cosmo

Faculty Mentor: Richard Sambrook

"Fish Spawning in Lake Michigan and Siting for Wind Farms"

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) with The Institute for Fisheries Research in Ann Arbor, Michigan have been revising an original Decision Support Tool (DST) that is a GIS based interface for lake bed alterations in the Great Lakes. Updating the Goodyear 1982 spawning atlas and the DST I will compare the availability of suitable lake bed area for future offshore wind farms in Lake Michigan. These areas will comply with the Great Lakes Wind Councils criteria for suitability and will take into account protected areas, marinas, shipwreck sites, shipping routes, generating stations and several other factors.

Janan Daniel

Faculty Mentor: Valerie Howells

"African-American Women's Journey to Academia and their Experiences as Occupational Therapy Professors"

The 2004 National Study of Post Secondary Faculty reported that in the fall of 2003 African-American female faculty made up only 6.4% of full time faculty at colleges and universities offering doctoral degrees and 7.4% at non-doctoral four-year institutions (Zimbler, 2004). These figures indicated that African-American female faculty composed significantly less than half of the fulltime faculty population at all four-year institutions in the US. This percentage reflects the situation that Af­rican-American women faculty members find themselves in at predomi­nately white universities: a minority culture in the academic world. It is no surprise then that women faculty of color experience cultural issues when working in predominately white institutions (Turner, 2002). The cultural issues that may arise due to being a minority faculty member in a predominately white institution can be experienced in combination with the traditional pressures of being a professor in academia, which can lead to a triad of stress and pressures: balancing work demands and long work weeks, social issues, and cultural matters specific to being an African-American female professor.

Lisa Denys

Faculty Mentor: Kristi Judd

"Incomplete Spring Turnover in Small Deep Lakes in SE Michigan"

While temperate lakes are commonly thought to turnover twice annually, in the fall and the spring, there are several factors that can reduce the probability of turnover. Whether or not a lake turns over has important implications for nutrient dynamics and food webs. In this study, we in­vestigated several small deep lakes in SE Michigan to determine whether spring turnover had occurred. One factor affected by lake turnover is the distribution of oxygen in the lake. Lakes receive oxygen from the atmo­sphere at their surface and from small plant-like organisms called phyto­plankton within the body of the lake. Photosynthesizing phytoplankton are typically more productive in the in the upper water layers because light is extinguished with depth. Oxygen is consumed over winter by bacteria in sediments at the bottom of the lake, which respire as they decompose debris, releasing nutrients. Wind forces and temperature changes in the spring and fall drive the water layers to mix. This process helps maintain a balance by circulating oxygen from the epilimnion (upper water layer) to the hypolimnion (bottom water layer) and nutrients from the hypolimnion to the upper layers. Factors that could affect whether a lake mixes include higher densities (from salinity), depth, temperature, and the shape of the lake in relation to wind direction. If a lake does not mix, we expect to find anoxic (oxygen depleted) conditions in the hypolimnion and lower nutri­ent concentrations in the epilimnion, resulting in a change in the distribu­tion and productivity of phytoplankton. Whether spring mixing events are occurring in small deep lakes in SE Michigan was the focus of this study. The results of the research show that complete mixing in spring occurred in only 2 of 5 lakes sur­veyed. In lakes with incomplete mixing, we found anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion and higher phytoplankton productivity in the metalimnion (middle layer) instead of the epilimnion. While the importance of moni­toring lakes is acknowledged by the state of Michigan, annual surveys are 134 rare due to budget constraints. More frequent monitoring would allow us to determine whether lack of turnover varies annually and what combina­tion of factors increases the probability of turnover in small deep lakes.

Ashley Durand

Faculty Mentor: Robert Winning

"Does Rac Gtpase Play A Role In Epha4 Signaling In Xenopus Embryos?"

In embryonic development, many cells migrate in order to correctly form new structures. One way that guidance of this migration occurs is via a repulsion mechanism involving the Eph family of receptors. Signaling through these receptors activates the repulsive mechanism that limits which tissues can interact with each other. The repulsion mechanism is not well understood, but involves the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and a loss of cell-cell adhesion. Activation of the EphA4 signaling pathway in Xenopus laevis embryos has been shown to cause the repulsion mechanism. The Rho family of GTPases consisting of Cdc42, Rho, and Rac, has been linked to the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and Rho has been demonstrated to be part of the EphA4 pathway. The hypothesis to be tested in this study is that activation of Rac is also part of the EphA4 pathway. To test this hypothesis, mutant Rac RNA coding for constitutively active Rac (caRac) was injected into Xenopus laevis embryos to determine if Rac activation can mimic EphA4 signaling. As the concentration of RNA coding for caRac increased, the degree of cellular dissociation also increased. While further experimentation must be done to make a conclusive determination, it is possible that the activation of Rac is a part of EphA4 signaling.

Lisa Ghigliazza

Faculty Mentor: Betty Brown-Chappell

"Children, Trauma, And Thetroubles: Northern Ireland's Social

Society in Northern Ireland has been wrought by sectarian conflict for decades. The conflict, punctuated by random acts of bloodshed and violence from paramilitary groups, police, and the British military, had been the predominant model for conflict resolution in Northern Ireland until the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998. Neighbors and friends had become enemies because of religious and political ideologies which lead to death, injury, and a deeply divided society. There was also an unseen cost of the conflict known as the Troubles; the immeasurable toll the conflict had taken on the mental and emotional health of children who had lived their whole lives in turmoil. Northern Ireland's most vulnerable members of society are children and many have suffered from life-long psychological trauma of the violence. Children, however, have been the most underserved population in terms of psychological and social needs. The purpose of this study was to understand the body of research which has been produced on the response from the social service sector to children traumatized by the violence of the Troubles and to evaluate the effectiveness of those responses.

David Gomez

Faculty Mentor: Elisabeth Daeumer

"The Media after 9/11: How They Interpret Honesty, Relevance, and Freedom of Speech in the New National Security State"

The press was intended to operate alongside the United States government. The Founders learned from their experiences that within the framework of the United States of America there should be a press to keep the people informed (1999 p. 1) Throughout the last 100 years the power of the press has been challenged, and in some more recent cases severely limited. The rise of the National Security State after World War II played a large part in neutralizing the press's ability to do its job. In the decades that followed World War II mainstream media became less independent as it integrated itself into the policymakers and government officials. The Founders had envisioned a republic where there would be a separation of interests between the press and the government, this wish is not being respected. This was painfully clear in the news coverage that followed 9/11. The press, which has evolved into the entity the American people refer to as media, did not raise any serious questions about the Bush administration's policy on waging war in Afghanistan. There were also serious concerns about the legitimacy of the Bush administration's claims that Saddam Hussein was personally responsible for the 9/11 attacks. These concerns were not seen as legitimate, and anti-war view points were all but barred from the mainstream media.

James Hendee

Faculty Mentor: Morgan Milner

"Profitable Globalization And The Ethical Dilemma Of U.S. Job Loss"

In theory, profitable globalization practices in developed, industrialized countries share a symbiotic relationship with cheaper offshore human resources in third-world, poor, or underdeveloped nations. A short case study of Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. is given, which examines Wal-mart's increased use of the cheaper Chinese workforce. By seeking out a lower cost labor force in a yet developing country, an ethical dilemma arises in that the business in the industrialized nation must ignore or disregard the job loss this decision creates within the borders of the home nation. Political and philosophical differences have led opponents to create an anti-thesis known as anti-globalization. The anti-globalization movement is apprehensive toward the cultural impact profitable globalization has on the poor and underdeveloped countries. This paper compares globalization versus Marxist thought in which some of the anti-globalization opinions are founded. By exploring a variety of sources and looking for matching patterns or ideas that give relevance to the topic, several sources were used in this study including the review of scholarly journals, engaging video documentaries, news reports, labor statistics, economic texts, and the concept of trade union impact on the work force. This paper establishes a theory that this profi table globalization through the offshore outsourcing of labor to foreign businesses is having a derogatory effect on the United States unemployment statistics.

Rebecca Hodge

Faculty Mentor: Marion Dokes-Brown

"The Impact of Family Involvement on the Academic Success of African American Students in the Intermediate Grades"

An intensive literature review was undertaken to determine the influence of parental involvement on the academic success of African American students in the intermediate grades. Current studies indicate that parental involvement fosters a positive attitude toward school, improves homework habits, reduces absenteeism, reduces student's risk of dropping out of school, and enhances academic achievement which has a direct effect on student academic achievement. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the parental questionnaires data will identify ways in which parents can be most useful in increasing student academic success. The results of this analysis will be used to create a Family Involvement Guide.

Rachel Hutchins

Faculty Mentor: Daniel Clemans

"The Effects of Seasonality and Land Use on Microbe Populations in Three Ecological Areas"

The Huron River watershed is comprised of three primary land uses: agricultural, natural, and urban. Land usage affects the biological and chemical conditions within the watershed, therefore affecting water quality. Recent studies have provided evidence that water quality can be assessed by examining the composition of the microbial communities found in biofilms. In this study we analyzed and compared samples col­lected from a natural site and urban site over the course of three seasons; fall (August), winter (December), and spring (April). Microbial diversity was determined by isolating, amplifying, and genotyping the 16S rRNA gene. The results show that microbial community structure varies with seasons, material composition, and site location.

Samuel Karafotis

Faculty Mentor: Julie Stone

"The Composition and Performance Practice of the Cadenza in The Classical Era"

This research addresses cadenza composition in the classical style and improvisation for flutists and other woodwind performers. Classical concerti continue to be performed frequently, requiring per­formers to select or compose cadenzas for these concerti. This research discusses the background and purpose of classical cadenzas, and the qualities present in historically accurate classical cadenzas. The research also addresses issues relevant to modern performers composing and im­provising cadenzas, culminating in cadenzas composed by the author for the Mozart Concerto in G Major, K. 313 for flute and orchestra.

Sarah Killian

Faculty Mentor: David Kass

"The Evolutionary History of the Mys Retrotransposon"

Mys, a jumping gene, has a more complex evolutionary history than what was once believed. The mys element was previously identified in the deer-mouse genus Peromyscus. Genetic testing of related rodents indicated that mys is present not only in Peromyscus, but integrated far earlier into all analyzed genera of the tribe Reithrodontomys. Furthermore, mys subfamilies derived from different source genes have been identified and their origins will also b e evaluated in future testing. The purpose of this study is to provide important insights regarding origins and evolution of retrotransposons.

Patricia Jackson

Faculty Mentor: Sylvia Gray

"African American Women With Traumatic Childhood History Seek Abusive Relationships."

Jasmine Lee

Faculty Mentor: Lynn Nybell

"Mentorship: In Research, Practice, And Planning"

This research examines literature from 1995-2007 involving youth mentorships in America. Mentor/National Mentoring partnership defines youth mentorship as a "structured and trusting relationship that brings young people together with caring individuals who offer guidance, support and encouragement aimed at developing the competence and character of the mentee" (2003). Over the past decade there has been a resurgence of youth mentoring as a way to provide support and encouragement to "at-risk" youth in America. My study of the literature involved defining the word mentor and finding the best practices used by mentor Programs that create positive outcomes in youth and documenting the process of the mentor relationship. During my research I discovered that there is a lack of information specifically regarding African-American mentors matched with African-American mentees and the impacts that this has on the youth involved. In light of this gap in the research I have taken the information and created a model for a mentoring program based on researched "best practices" and recommendations from scholars concerning how to structure a mentor program. This program has been designed specifically for 25 African-American students, between the ages of 13-15 who will be paired with 25 African-American mentors who are undergraduates at Eastern Michigan University. This literature review and program design serves as the preliminary step for further research.

Mariano Marks

Faculty Mentor: James Carroll

"Comparing Langmuir Probe Traces of Different Debye Length-to-Probe Radius Ratios"

To study plasmas, like those found in semiconductor applications and in space, requires the use of Langmuir probes and an appropriate model for analyzing the data obtained. The choice of model depends on an important characteristic scale length in a plasma call the Debye length. Using a hollow-an! ode plasma source in the EMU Plasma Physics Laboratory, we built a qua d-tipped Langmuir probe with probes of different radii ranging from smaller than to much greater than the Debye length. The effects of the ratio of the probe radius to the Debye length on the probe data will be presented.

Kelly Martin

Faculty Mentor: Sylvia Gray

"African American Single Mothers Living With HIV/AIDS: Should the Lack of Social Support Influence Isolation?"

Colleen Marquis

Faculty Mentor: John McCurdy

"A History Of History: The Origins Of War Re-Enacting In America"

Americans remember history in many different ways. The Historical Re-enactment is the most controversial and bewildering event of public remembrance. Americans re-enact every war in American history from the French and Indian War down to the Vietnam War. My research set out to answer several questions about this custom of public history: why does it exist, what purpose does it serve, and who started it? My research led me to a shattered post-Civil War America. The true test of the unity of America had passed and people were left to make sense of the war that was experienced on the level of a national tragedy. The re-enactor, a veteran and an amateur historian, would begin to write his story and present it for the public. This form of public memory would be used to facilitate an idealistic and blind reunion of North and South. The history would be changed to make remembering safe.

Mildred McClarty

Faculty Mentor: Richard Douglass

"An Empirical Assessment Ofadministrative Skill Sets In The Health Care Delivery Systems Of Ghana"

In a country with 22 million people, Ghana faces inadequacies of staffing and on-site resources that are typical of sub-Saharan Africa. While the majority of the nation's populations still live in rural areas, health and human services are concentrated in the cities. These hospitals and clinics are in poor repair and maintenance is a challenge; managers need to cope with inadequate resources and nearly unlimited demands. Ghanaian health administrators are responsible for the general and medical administration of their facilities. The current training for such positions comes in the form of a master's degree and a one year placement in national service that leads to a certification. But there is no specificity of the training to the tasks that are required of administrators. There is no available systematic analysis of the skill sets that are required to do this work. Educational programs and specifi c, appropriate training for applications in Ghana, must be implemented to ensure quality management of the nation's health care facilities.

Kristin Neville

Faculty Mentor: Donna Selman

"Forgotten Children: Law Enforcement Agencies, Child Protective Services, And Children of Arrested Parents in Michigan"

When a child's sole caretaker is arrested, a number of differ­ent outcomes can happen depending on how a law enforcement agency handles the situation. There is no single set of guidelines that all police departments follow. In fact, many departments do not have a policy that dictates practice. This can cause children to "fall through the cracks," ranging from being left alone, to being turned over to unqualified care­givers, to being placed in the custody of someone they don't know. This is a problem because not only can it put the child/children in physically dangerous situations, but also it can have long lasting psychological ef­fects. There are some procedures and approaches that police departments have in place that can decrease the harm suffered by these children, their parents and the community when caregivers of minor children are ar­rested. However, more could be done in this important area. The goal of this research is to identify the possible gaps between law enforcement agencies and Child Protective Services in an effort to reduce harm and provide both agencies with a tool to aide in the development of more ef­fective policies and practices.

Josiah Osburn

Faculty Mentors: Brenda Doster and Linda Polter

"Individuals with Hearing Impairment in Positions of Leadership"

This investigation examines scholarly literature in the study of the deaf and hard of hearing. The purpose of this examination is to locate the literature that focuses on hearing impairments (HI), and to identify methods or procedures that focus on individuals with hearing impair­ments in positions of leadership. During this investigation it was found that there is no abundance of literature that specifically focused on the study of individuals with hearing impairments in the positions of leader­ship. The study then shifted its focus to related studies within the field of hearing impairment that were relevant to understanding the challenges that an individual with a hearing impairment encounter, benefits of new technology, implications of mainstreaming, and the importance of reha­bilitative/habilitative intervention teams. When the following research investigation takes place, the hypothesis will be that there are correla­tions between leadership skills and extracurricular activities in which children with hearing impairments participate.

Jenna Panozzo

Faculty Mentor: Cynthia Gabriel and Karen Sinclair

"The Emotional Aspect of the Surrogacy Process"

To consider surrogacy is to say that every other assisted reproductive technology has been exhausted. Intended parents must take several steps when considering surrogacy including, hormone and fertility medications, donor insemination, and in-vitro fertilization. There are numerous factors that have been researched surrounding surrogacy. The perspectives often considered in current research include legal, kinship, and financial aspects as well as media analysis. However, the research lacks depth into the emotional aspect. My research entails covering the literature surrounding the surrogate process and continuing further research involving ethnographic interviews with surrogate families and their personal emotional experiences throughout the surrogacy process.

Jason Phillips

"Exploring the Functions of Overeating Behavior."

Walter Reggans

Faculty Mentor: Mehmet Yaya

"Culture the Underlying Determinant of Economic Growth"

Economists have historically focused on the rational individual pursuing self-interest as a "context-independent" agent (Togati, 1998). Contrasting this viewpoint was a consensus reached in Cultural Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress (Harrison, Huntington, 2000). The consensus reached was "attitudes, values, and beliefs shape culture, which in turn shapes human behavior and has a major impact on economic progress." Hence, I investigated the relationship between national culture and income per capita. I used culture to serve as a proxy for institutional environment which determines a country's growth and income. My preliminary research indicates strong correlations exist between culture and economic growth.

Melissa Redwood

Faculty Mentor: Marianne Laporte

"Detecting T7 Tagged NADP- Malic Enzyme Expressed From Esherichia Coli"

Plants bioengineered to over express NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME) lose less water vapor through their stomata, reducing their need for irrigation. The ME gene was genetically fused to a T7 tag that can be detected by an antibody in a western blot. In order to confirm that the T7 tag does not interfere with ME activity, the tagged protein was expressed in Escherichia coli prior to expression in plants. Western blot confirmed strong expression of ME. In vitro assays will be completed to ensure that the T7 tag does not interfere with ME's ability to convert malate to pyruvate.

Mary Sue Storie

Faculty Mentors: Mark Ragg & Marilyn Wedenoja

"Practitioners' Views Of Effective Treatment Options For Childhood Trauma"

In today's society the number of children who experience childhood trauma is increasing significantly. As a result of this increase, the number of people seeking treatment is also on the rise. For this study, data were collected using both qualitative interviews (N=10) and an online quantitative survey (N=32). Practitioners' views of effectiveness ranged from both more traditional treatments to emerging alternative treatments. Recent knowledge from brain research shows trauma impacts both the left and right side of the brain. Many practitioners noted effective treatment needs to be comprehensive. This is supported by literature recommending modalities that work with the effect trauma has on both sides of the brain

Elisa Torres

Faculty Mentors: Richaurd Camp and Denise Tanguay

"The Impact of Level and Type of Collegiate Sports Participation and Gender on Inferences Made by Job Recruiters"

The first step in the employment selection process, a review of applicants' resumes, determines who may be interviewed for a given position. This paper reviews the literature on how recruiters draw inferences during this process. Major topics examined include: the empirical validity of recruiters' inferences; the various biographical data elements that influence recruiters' inferences; and, the importance given the extracurricular activities portion of the resume. This literature review concludes with the identification of a gap in the research regarding the impact that both type and level of sports participation, as well as gender, have on inferences recruiters' draw from applicants' resumes.

Dara Walker

Faculty Mentor: Melvin Peters

"Report On Information Literacy And The Mic: Teaching Higher Education Students Critical Research Skills Using Hip Hop Lyricism"

Many professors expect undergraduate students to have basic research skills. However, they soon learn that their students are unable to find, sort, and analyze information for research papers and projects. To help students attain these skills, university librarians develop course related information literacy (IL) sessions for both undergraduate and graduate classes. In this study, I explored the differences and similarities in the objectives, teaching aides, and final assignments of information literacy instruction which uses the thematic content in conscious hip hop lyricism to reinforce skills learned as compared to other methods. Understanding the differences and similarities may encourage librarians to make instruction through hip hop a part of their repertoire. The similarities express hip hop's ability to join the range of other methods while the differences point to the many contributions it can make to the current array of techniques.

Mark Wheeler

Faculty Mentor: Betty Brown-Chappell

"Stereotypes: Racism and its Effects on the 2008 Presidential Election and our Citizens"

This is such a historic time in our country's story, due to the reprieve from the usual choice of middle-aged White males in a presi­dential election. The make-up of candidates' age, race, and sex in the 2008 primaries and general election allowed the unique opportunity for multiple stereotypes to be engaged. This was an exploratory qualitative study, relying on descriptive data, participant observation during the general election campaign, and in-depth interviews (N=8) that happened within six months after the election of Barack H. Obama, first African-American elected president of the United States. The purpose of this study is to examine the influences stereotypes of race had on the 2008 presidential election. My finding was that the preponderance of negative stereotypes in the campaigns counter-intuitively catalyzed the positive discussion of race.

Carmita Williams

Faculty Mentor: Janet Okagbue-Reaves

"Biracial People are Subjected to Complex Dual Racism"

Folayan Zheng

Faculty Mentor: Toni Stokes –Jones

"The College Role In Diminishing The Digital Divide Gender Gap: Assessment Of Male Vs. Female Computer Access And Use"

Higher education has been allied with the computer industry since the advent of the personal computer. In the past, an anomalous gap has been found to generally exist between males and females in the Unit­ed States regarding the access and use of computers. The purpose of this study is to review research regarding college student computer access for males and females. The report will also examine computer ownership based on examination of the results of a college-based survey, as well as by comparisons to past and present technology ownership trends. While a number of colleges have published reports on the progress of their technological initiatives, few publish gender data in regard to the state of computer ownership or college supported access today in order to continue to monitor important digital divide trends. The findings of this study suggest that colleges and universities offering low-cost options for computer use, purchase, or lease, and Internet access, are critical in sup­pressing the gender gap