EMU researcher examines Iraqi views of politics, religion and the U.S.
YPSILANTI - An Eastern Michigan University professor, internationally known for his expertise on Middle East issues, has released findings from the second of two comprehensive surveys of Iraqi citizens that may help the U.S. government’s role in Iraq.
EMU sociologist Mansoor Moaddel (pronounced moe-ah-dell) of Eastern Michigan University, and Ronald Inglehart and Mark Tessler, both of the University of Michigan, recently completed the second of two surveys of Iraqi public opinion, supported by grants from the National Science Foundation. Their 2004 study examined Iraqi attitudes towards religion, politics, gender and coalition forces. The most recent survey, completed in April 2006, examined the growing feelings of insecurity and xenophobia, support for secular politics and nationalism, and changes in public opinion from 2004 – 2006.
“We found that Iraqi political values have become more secular and nationalistic, while at the same time, Iraqis expressed a higher feeling of mistrust of foreigners and insecurity now than they did when we conducted the first survey less than two years ago,” said Moaddel. “With the decline of violence and the establishment of some degree of political stability, we expect the feelings of insecurity to change. The killing of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, leader of Iraq’s foreign terrorists, will improve morale and have a tremendous impact on the morale of terrorists and insurgents.”
The surveys used nationally representative samples of 2,325 Iraqi adults and 2,701 Iraqi adults respectively, which were carried out by Independent Institute for Administration and Civil Society Studies, a survey research firm in Baghdad, Iraq.
Findings from both surveys reveal significant change among the Iraqi public:
The comparable figures for the British increased from 87 percent to 90 percent; and from 84 percent to 90 percent for the French.
55 percent to 61 percent between surveys. These figures increased from 50 percent to 59 percent for Kuwaitis; from 59 percent to 71 percent for the Turks; and from 43 percent to 61 percent for Jordanians.
all.” In 2004, 23 percent of respondents defined themselves as Iraqis. This figure rose to 28 percent in 2006. Among educated Iraqis this change was even greater, from 22 percent in 2004 to 32 percent in 2006.
Given that the development of the modern state in the West has historically been associated with the rise of territorial nationalism and secular discourse, said Moaddel, the Iraqis’ increasing attachment to national identity and support for secular discourse may signify a change in attitude that favors the formation of a modern and democratic political order.
“Since support for secular attitudes has gained considerable ground among Sunnis, this change may make it increasingly difficult for followers of al-Qaeda to recruit among this religious sect in Iraq,” said Moaddel. “If these attitudinal changes reflect a fundamental process toward modern nation building and secularism, even while Iraqis’ mistrust of American forces in their country has reached an all-time high, they at the same time have moved toward some of the basic democratic values.”
A graduate of Shiraz University in Iran, Moaddel received a doctorate in sociology from the University of Wisconsin and a master’s degree from Western Michigan University.
He specializes in culture and ideology of the Middle East; Middle Eastern Politics; and the future of Islamic fundamentalism and its effects on the United States.
He is the author of numerous books, including Islamic Modernism, Nationalism, and Fundamentalism: Episode and Discourse, published by the University of Chicago Press in 2005. He is a member of the ad hoc partnership group with the Department of Homeland Security and frequently shares his findings with state officials and the U.S. Congress.
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