Dr. Caldwell will lead the conceptualization and overall research agenda. This project examines the persistence of racism within public school funding policy, practice, and educational disparities within Michigan. Led by Caldwell, Richardson, and Grant will determine if there exists a statistical significance between the district type (e.g., current high spenders vs. low spenders, those with more high-needs students vs. those with fewer, those with more concentrated students living in poverty vs. those with fewer students living in poverty, etc.) and their funding distribution (descriptive use of z scores), funding effort (descriptive use of z scores), and funding level (regression). For phase 2, Caldwell, Smart, Polega, and Porter will design the research methodology and data gathering. The UW of Carl, Richardson and Grant with Caldwell will work to replicate and offer validation statistically.