- Post-Doctoral Fellowship, University of Michigan, Behavioral Medicine
- Ph.D., Wayne State University
- MS, Wayne State University
- BA, Colby College
Interests and Expertise
- Addictive behaviors
- Interaction of addictive and eating behaviors
- Binge eating
- Bariatric surgery
- Weight management/maintenance
- Body image
- Weight stigma
Publications and Presentations
Carr, M.M., Ellis, J.D., Saules, K.K., Page, J.L., Staples, A.S. & Ledgerwood, D.M. (2021). Substance Use, Gambling, Binge-Eating, and Hypersexuality Symptoms Among Patients Receiving Opiate Agonist Therapies. American Journal of Addictions.
Carr, M.M., Saules, K.K., Ellis, J.D., Staples, A.D., Ledgerwood, D. M., & Loverich, T. (2020). Development and validation of the Recognizing Addictive Disorders scale: A transdiagnostic measure of substance-related and other addictive disorders. Substance Use & Misuse. Substance Use & Misuse, 55 (13), 2194-2204, DOI: 10.1080/10826084.2020.1797806
Carr, M.M., Schulte, E., Saules, K. K., & Gearhardt, A. (2020). Measurement invariance of the Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 across gender and racial groups. Assessment, 27 (2), 356-364. doi: 10.1177/1073191118786576.
Saules, K. K. & Herb, K. (2019). Sex and gender differences in compulsive overeating. In P. Cottone, V. Sabino, C. Moore & G. Koob (Eds.) Food Addiction and Compulsive Eating Behavior: Research Perspectives. Elsevier. ISBN: 9780128162071
Berdin, A. N. & Saules, K. K. (2019). Combined Use of Alcohol and the Internet: Associated Features. Substance Use & Misuse, 54 (13), 2099-2107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2019.1630440.
Saules, K. K., Carr, M.M., & Herb, K. (2018). Overeating, overweight, and substance misuse: What’s the connection? Invited manuscript for Current Addiction Reports, 5 (2), 232-242. DOI: 10.1007/s40429-018-0208-9.
Carey, J. B., Saules, K. K., & Carr, M. M. (2017). A qualitative analysis of men’s experiences of binge eating. Appetite, 116, 184-195.
Ivezaj, V., Stoeckel, L., Avena, N., Benoit, S.C., Conason, A., Davis, J.F., Gearhardt, A., Goldman, R., Mitchell, J.E., Ochner, C.N., Saules, K. K., Steffen, K. J., Stice, E., & Sogg., S. (2017). Obesity and Addiction: Can a complication of surgery help us understand the connection? Obesity Reviews, 18(7), 765-775.
Carr, M. M., Catak, P. D., Pejsa-Reitz, M., Saules, K. K., and Gearhardt, A. (2017). Measurement invariance of the Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 across gender and racial groups. Psychological Assessment, 29 (8), 1044-1052.
Carr, M. & Saules, K. K., Koch, E.I., & Waltz, T. J. (2017). Testing the dose-response curve in a training clinic setting: Use of client pretreatment factors to minimize bias in estimates. Training & Education in Professional Psychology, 11(1), 26-32.
Sienko, R., Saules, K. K., and Carr, M. M. (2016). Internalized weight bias mediates the relationship between depression and disordered eating behavior among women who think they are overweight. Eating Behaviors, 22, 141-144.
McSweeney, L., Koch, E., Saules, K.K. & Jefferson, S. (2016). Exploratory factor analysis of DSM-5 criteria for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 204(1), 9-14. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000000390.
Pouliot, G., Paschall, E. & Saules, K.K. (2015). Can video games be addicting? An investigation into the specific game features and personal characteristics associated with problematic video game playing. Acta Psychopathologica,1(3), 1-15.
Saules, K.K. Carey, J. B., Carr, M. & Sienko, R (2015). Binge-Eating Disorder: Prevalence, Predictors, and Management in the Primary Care Setting. Journal of Clinical Outcomes Management, 22(11), 512-528.
Porter, K. E., Koch, E. I., Saules, K. K., & Shadle, M.B. (2015). The impact of sexual victimization on perceived consequences of risky dating scenarios. Acta Psychpathologica, 1(1), 1-9.
Saules, K.K. (2015). Regarding Cuellar-Barboza AB et al., Change in consumption patterns for treatment-seeking patients with alcohol use disorder post-bariatric surgery. J Psychosom Res, 78 (3). 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2014.06.019
Yanos, B., Saules, K.K., Schuh, L. M., & Sogg, S (2015). Predictors of lowest weight and long-term weight regain among Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients. Obesity Surgery, 25 (8), 1364-1370.
Ivezaj, V., Saules, K.K., & Schuh, L.M. (2014). New onset substance use disorder after gastric bypass surgery: Frequency and associated characteristics. Obesity Surgery.24(11):1975-80.
Clark, S.M., Saules, K. K., Schuh, L. M. Stote, J. & Creel, D.B. (2014). Associations between relationship stability, relationship quality, and weight loss outcomes among bariatric surgery patients. Eating Behaviors, 15(4):670-2.
Fowler, L., Ivezaj, V., & Saules, K. K. (2014). Problematic intake of high-sugar/low-fat and high glycemic index foods by bariatric patients is associated with development of post-surgical new onset substance use disorders. Eating Behaviors, 15 (3), 505-8.
Callahan, J. L., Gustafson, S., Misner, J., Paprocki, C.M., Sauer, E.M., Saules, K. K., …Wise, E. H. (2014). Introducing the Association of Psychology Training Clinics’ Collaborative Research Network. Training & Education in Professional Psychology, 8 (2), 95-104.
Reslan, S., Saules, K. K., Greenwald, M.K., & Schuh, L.M. (2014). Substance misuse following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Substance Use & Misuse, 49 (4), 405-417.
Saules, K.K. & Reslan, S. (2013). Post-bariatric surgery substance use disorders: Prevalence, predictors, management, and prevention. Journal of Clinical Outcomes Management, 20 (10), 470-480.
Reslan, S., Saules, K. K., & Ivezaj, V. (2013). Binge eating disorder: Causes, co-factors, and complications. In S. B. Harris (Ed.), Binge Eating and Binge Drinking: Psychological, Social, and Medical Implications (pp. 61-96). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Wiedemann, A. A., Saules, K. K., & Ivezaj, V. (2013). Emergence of New Onset substance use disorders among post-weight loss surgery patients. Clinical Obesity, 3 (6), 194-201.
Pulcini, M.E., Saules, K.K., & Schuh, L.M. (2013). Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients hospitalized for substance use disorders achieve successful weight loss despite poor psychosocial outcomes. Clinical Obesity, 3 (3-4), 95-102.
Wiedemann, A.A. & Saules, K.K. (2013). The relationship between emotional eating and weight problem perception is not a function of body mass index or depression. Eating Behaviors, 14 (4), 525-528.
Reslan, S., & Saules, K. K (2013). Assessing the prevalence and predictors of overweight, obesity, and Binge Eating Disorder as a function of ethnicity. Eating & Weight Disorders. 18 (2), 209-219. doi: 10.1007/s40519-013-0022-2.
Clark, S.M. & Saules, K.K. (2013). Validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale among a weight-loss surgery population. Eating Behaviors, 14 (2), 216-219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2013.01.002
Reslan, S., Saules, K. K., & Greenwald, M. K. (2012a). Validating the behavioral economic approach to assess food demand: Effect of body mass index, dietary restraint, and impulsivity. Appetite. 59(2), 364-371. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2012.05.025
Reslan, S., Saules, K. K., & Greenwald, M. K. (2012b). Validation of an online questionnaire measure of the relative reinforcing value of food. Eating Behavior, 13(3), 278-280. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2012.03.009
Ivezaj, V., Saules, K. K., & Wiedemann, A. (2012). “I didn’t see this coming.” Why are post-bariatric patients in substance abuse treatment? Patients’ perceptions of etiology and future recommendations. Obesity Surgery, 22 (8), 1308-14.
Reslan, S. & Saules, K. K. (2011). College students’ definitions of an eating “binge” differ as a function of gender and Binge Eating Disorder status. Eating Behaviors, 12, 225-227. doi:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2011.03.001.
Reslan, S., Saules, K. K., & Serras, A. (2011). “Partier” identity mediates the relationship between college student binge drinking and related adverse consequences. Addictive Behavior, 36 (8), 855-860.
Sehgal, R., Saules, K. K., Young, A., Grey, M.J., Gillem, A.R., Nabors, N.A., Byrd, M.R., & Jefferson, S. (2011). Multicultural counseling competence among clinical psychology trainees and experienced multicultural psychologists: Do we practice what we know? Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 17 (1), 1-10.
Saules, K.K., Wiedemann, A., Ivezaj, V. Hopper, J.S., Foster-Hartsfield, J., & Schwarz, D. (2010). Bariatric surgery history among substance abuse treatment patients: Prevalence and associated features. Surgery for Obesity & Related Diseases, 6 (6), 615-621.
Ivezaj, V., Saules, K.K., Hoodin, F, Alschuler, K., Angelella, N.E., Collings, A.S., Saunders-Scott, D. & Wiedemann, A. A. (2010). The relationship between binge eating and weight status on depression, anxiety, and body image among a diverse college sample: A focus on bi/multiracial women. Eating Behaviors, 11, 18-24, doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2009.08.003.
Serras, A.M. Saules, K.K., Cranford, J.A. & Eisenberg, D. (2010). Self-injury, substance use, and associated risk factors in a multi-campus probability sample of college students. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 24, 119-128, doi: 10.1037/a0017210.
Saules, K.K., Collings, A.S., Hoodin, F., Angelella, N.E., Alschuler, K., Ivezaj, V., Saunders-Scott, D. & Wiedemann, A.A. (2009). The contribution of weight problem perception, BMI, gender, mood, and smoking status to binge eating among college students. Eating Behaviors, 10 (1), 1-9.
Saules, K.K., Collings, A.S., Wiedemann, A.A. & Fowler, S. L. (2009). The relationship of body image to obesity and binge eating: The role of cross-situational body image dissatisfaction versus situational reactivity. Psychological Reports, 104, 909-921.
Erdodi, L.A., Lajiness-O’Neill, R., & Saules, K.K. (2009). Order of Conner’s CPT-II administration within a cognitive test battery influences ADHD indices. Journal of Attention Disorders. doi:10.1177/1087054709347199
Saules, K.K., Pomerleau, C.S. & Tate, J.C. (2008). Weight control smoking in women. In K.P. Tolson & E.B. Veksler (Eds.), Research Focus on Smoking and Women’s Health Research. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., pp 61-92.
Collings, A.S., Saules, K.K., & Saad, L.R. (2008). A prospective study of predictors of successful weight maintenance by women enrolled in community-based weight-loss programs. Eating & Weight Disorders, 13(1), 38-47.
Saules, K.K., Levine, M.D., Marcus, M.D., & Pomerleau, C.S. (2007). Differences in smoking patterns among women smokers with childhood versus later onset of weight problems. Eating Behaviors, 8, 418-422.
Pomerleau, C.S. & Saules, K.K. (2007). Body image, body satisfaction, and eating patterns in normal and overweight/obese women smokers and never smokers. Addictive Behaviors, 32, 2329–2334.
Saules, K.K. Vannest, N., Mehringer, A.M., Pomerleau, C.S., Lee, K., Opipari, A., Midgley, R., Kleinsmith, L., Sen, A. & Snedecor, S. (2007). Actual versus perceived risk of cervical cancer among young women smokers. Journal of American College Health, 55 (4), 207-213.
Lee, K., Saules, K.K., pomerleau, C.S., Opipari, A., Snedecor, S.M., Sen, A., Vannest, N., Midgley, R. & Kleinsmith, L. (2007). Evaluating the ability of visual images to inform college women about the link between smoking and cervical dysplasia and to motivate quitting: Critical dimensions. Journal of Cancer Education. Fall; 22(3):154-158.
King, L.T., Saules, K.K. & Irish, J. (2007). Weight concerns, perfectionism, and cognitive style: Which carries more “weight” in the prediction of smoking among college women? Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 9 (5), 535-543.
Rockafellow, B.D. & Saules, K.K. (2006). Substance use and abuse by college students: The role of intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation for athletic involvement. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20, 279-287.
Saules, K.K., Pomerleau, C.S., Snedecor, S., Namenek Brower, R. & Rosenberg, E.E.M. (2004). Effects of disordered eating and obesity on weight, craving, and food intake during ad libitum smoking and abstinence. Eating Behaviors, 5 (4), 353-363.
Henderson, M.H., Saules, K.K., & Galen L. (2004). The predictive validity of the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Questionnaire in a heroin-addicted polysubstance abuse population. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18 (2), 106-112.
Saules, K.K., Schuh, L.M., Arfken, C.L., Reed, K., Kilbey, M.M., & Schuster, C.R. (2004). Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine in smoking cessation treatment including nicotine patch and cognitive behavioral group therapy. American Journal on Addictions. 13(5):438-46.
Saules, K.K., Pomerleau, C.S., Snedecor, S.M., Mehringer, A.M., Shadle, M.B., Kurth, C., & Krahn, D. (2004). Relationship of onset of cigarette smoking during college to alcohol use, dieting concerns, and depressed mood: Results from the Young Women’s Health Survey. Addictive Behaviors, 29, 893-899.
Roll, J.M., Saules, K.K., Chudzynski, J.E. & Sodano, R. (2004). Relationship between Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire scores and clinic attendance among cocaine abusing buprenorphine-maintained outpatients. Substance Use and Misuse, 39, 1025-1040.
Rhodes, G.L., Saules, K.K., Helmus, T.C., Roll, J., Beshears, R.M., Ledgerwood, D.M., Schuster, C.R. (2003) Improving On-Time Counseling Attendance in a Methadone Treatment Program: A Contingency Management Approach. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29,759-773.
Sweet, R. & Saules, K.K. (2003). Validity of the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Instrument-Adolescent (SASSI-A). Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 331-340.
Helmus, T.C., Saules, K.K., Schoener, E.P., & Roll, J.M. (2003). Reinforcement of Counseling Attendance and Alcohol Abstinence in a Community-Based Dual-Diagnosis Treatment Program: A Feasibility Study. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 17, 249-251.
Pomerleau O.F., Pomerleau C.S., Marks J.L., Snedecor S.M., Mehringer A.M., Namenek Brouwer, R.J, & Saules, K.K. (2003). Prolonged nicotine patch use in quitters with past abstinence-induced depression. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 24, 13-18.
Pomerleau, C.S., Downey, K.K., Snedecor, S.M., Mehringer, A.M., Marks, J.L., & Pomerleau, O.F. (2003). Smoking patterns and abstinence effects in smokers with no ADHD, childhood ADHD, and adult ADHD symptomatology. Addictive Behaviors, 28, 1149-1157.
Saules, K.K., Pomerleau, C.S., & Schubiner, H. (2002). Patterns of inattentive and hyperactive symptomatology in cocaine-addicted and non-cocaine-addicted smokers diagnosed with Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. J. Addictive Disease, 22, 71- 78.
Mehringer, A., Downey, K.K., Schuh, L.S., Pomerleau, C.S., Snedecor, S.M., & Schubiner, H. (2002). The Assessment of Hyperactivity and Attention (AHA): Development and preliminary validation of a brief self-assessment of adult ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 5, 223-231.
Schubiner, H., Saules, K.K., Arfken C., Johanson C.E., Schuster, C.R., Lockhart, N., & Pihlgren, E. (2002). Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of methylphenidate in the treatment of adult ADHD patients with comorbid cocaine dependence. Experimental & Clinical Psychopharmacology, 10, 286-294.
Ledgerwood, D. & Downey, K.K. (2002). Relationship between problem gambling substance abuse, and psychiatric comorbidity in a methadone maintenance treatment population. Addictive Behaviors, 27, 483-491.
Schuh, L.M., Stamat, H., Downey, K.K., Schuh, K.S. (2001). Subjective and discriminative stimulus effects of two de-nicotinized cigarettes with different tar contents. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 3, 71-77.
Helmus, T., Downey, K.K., Wang, L.M., Rhodes, G. & Schuster, CR. (2001). The relationship between self-reported cocaine withdrawal symptoms and history of mood disorder. Addiction, 26, 461-467.
Helmus, T., Downey, K.K., Arfken, C., Henderson, M.J. & Schuster, CR. (2001). Novelty seeking as a predictor of treatment outcome for heroin dependent cocaine users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 61, 287-295.
Downey, K.K., Helmus, T., & Schuster, C.R. (2000). Treatment of heroin dependent poly-drug abusers with contingency management and buprenorphine maintenance. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 8, 176-184.
Reilly, M.P., Roll, J., & Downey, K.K. (2000). Impulsivity and voucher versus money preference in polydrug dependent participants enrolled in a contingency-management based substance abuse treatment program. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 19,253-257.
Pomerleau, C.S., Mehringer, A.M., Marks, J.L., Downey, K.K., & Pomerleau, O.F. (2000). Effects of menstrual phase and smoking abstinence in smokers with and without a history of major depressive disorder. Addictive Behaviors, 25, 483-497.
Downey, K.K., Helmus, T., & Schuster, C.R. (2000). Contingency management for accurate predictions of urinalysis test results and lack of correspondence with self-reported drug use among poly-drug abusers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 14, 69-72.
Downey, K.K., Pomerleau, C.S., Huth, A., & Silk, K. (1998). The effect of a restricted smoking policy on motivation to quit smoking in psychiatric inpatients. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 17, 1-8.
Kilbey, M.M., Downey, K.K., & Breslau, N. (1998). Role of expectancy in persistent, remitted, and emergent alcohol dependence. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 6, 1-8.
Downey, K.K., Stelson, F.W., Pomerleau, O.F., & Giordani, B. (1997). Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Psychological test profiles in a clinical population. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 185, 32-38.
Downey, K.K., Pomerleau, C.S., & Pomerleau, O.F. (1996). Personality differences related to smoking and adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Substance Abuse, 8, 129-135.
Pomerleau, O.F., Downey, K.K., Stelson, F.W., & Pomerleau, C.S. (1995). Cigarette smoking in adult patients diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Substance Abuse, 7, 373-377.
Downey, K.K. & Kilbey, M.M. (1995). The relationship between nicotine and alcohol expectancies and substance dependence. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 3, 174-182.
Lumley, M.A., Downey, K., Stettner, L., Wehmer, F., and Pomerleau, O.F. (1994). Alexithymia and negative affect: Relationship to cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence, and smoking cessation. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 61, 156-162.
Lewis, R.F. & Downey, K.K. (1992). MMPI/MMPI-2 critical items for Panic Disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 6, 275-283.
Grants, Honors and Awards
- 2004 EMU Psychology Department award for Excellence in Graduate Student Mentorship
- 2010 EMU Graduate Mentorship Award recipient
- 2010 Association of Psychology Training Clinics' Jean Spruill Achievement Award for excellence in training and dedication to best practices in professional psychology doctoral training clinics
Eating and Addictive Behaviors Lab
EMU Community Behavioral Health Clinic