Eastern Michigan University
College of Arts and Sciences
Psychology Department
direct edit

James T. Todd

Professor

301A Science Complex

734.487.0376

jtodd@emich.edu

Education

Ph.D., University of Kansas, May, 1990

M.A., University of Kansas, May, 1986

B.A., University of Kansas, May, 1981

Interests and Expertise

Much of my recent work involves the analysis of ineffective and pseudoscientific interventions for autism and other developmental disabilities, especially “facilitated communication” and “rapid prompting.” I have served as an expert for the Defense in cases involving false accusations of abuse arising from these methods. Most recently I was an expert witness for the Prosecution in the Stubblefield assault case in New Jersey discussing the scientific evidence against the validity of facilitated communication.  Some of my other interests and work are described below.

Basic research interests: in include the experimental analysis of the behavioral and physiological bases of schedule-induced responding and activity anorexia.

Applied interests: Use of behavior modification to increase independent living skills of persons with severe multiple handicaps. Application of findings in extinction-induced and schedule-induced behavior to the intervention of aggression, tantrums, and similar behaviors in humans. Technical and electronic interventions for persons with handicaps.

Theoretical interests: History and philosophy of radical behaviorism, the analysis of private events, and the comparative analysis of scientific systems.

I am the Secretary/Treasurer of the Behavior Analysis Association of Michigan (BAAM). Additionally, I do some work with computer based control and data collection for behavioral experiments.

Selected Publications

Books

Todd, J. T., & Morris, E. K. (Eds.). (1995). Modern perspectives on B. F. Skinner and radical behaviorism. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Todd, J. T., & Morris, E. K. (Eds.). (1994). Modern perspectives on John B. Watson and classical behaviorism. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Chapters

Todd, J.T. (2015). Old horses in new stables: Rapid prompting, facilitated communication, science, ethics, and the history of magic. In R.M. Foxx & J.A. Mulick (Eds.). Controversial Therapies for Developmental Disabilities: Fad, Fashion, and Science in Professional Practice (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Routledge.

Todd, J.T., & Pietrowski, J. L. (2007). Animal models of exposure therapy: A selective review. In D. C. S. Richard and D. Lauterbach (Eds.), Handbook of Exposure Therapies. San Francisco, CA: Academic Press.

Morris, E. K. & Todd, J. T. (1998). Watsonian behaviorism. In W. O. Donohue & R. Kitchener (Eds.), Handbook of Behaviorism. New York: Academic Press.

Todd, J. T. (1996). A history of division 25 (experimental analysis of behavior). In D.A. Dewsbury (Ed.), Unification through division: Histories of the American Psychological Association. (pp. 157-193) Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Todd, J.T. (1994). What psychology has to say about John B. Watson: Classical behaviorism in psychology textbooks, 1920-1989. In J.T. Todd & E.K. Morris (Eds.). Modern perspectives on John B. Watson and classical behaviorism. (pp. 75-107). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Journal Articles

Lang, R., Tostanoski, A. H., Travers, J. T., & Todd, J.T.  (2014). The only study investigating the rapid prompting method has serious methodological flaws but data suggest the most likely outcome is prompt dependency. Evidence-Based Communication Assessment and Intervention, 8(1), 40-48.

Lilienfeld, S.O., Marshall, J., Todd, J.T. & Shane, H.C. (2014). The persistence of fad interventions in the face of negative scientific evidence: Facilitated communication for autism as a case example.  Evidence-Based Communication Assessment and Intervention, 8(2), 62-101.

Todd, J.T. (2014). Some useful resources for students who are tempted to bring enlightenment to errant non-behaviorists. Behavior Analysis in Practice, (DOI) 10.1007/s40617-014-0027-y

Todd, J.T. (2012). The moral obligation to be empirical: Comments on Boynton's “Facilitated Communication—what harm it can do: Confessions of a former facilitator.”  Evidence-Based Communication Assessment and Intervention, 6(1), 36-57.

Gorman, B.J., Wynne, C.J., Morse, C.J., & Todd, J.T. (2011). Psychology and the law in the classroom: How the use of clinical fads in the classroom may awaken the educational malpractice claim. Brigham Young Education and Law Journal, 2011(1), 29-50.

Anson, H.M., Todd, J. T., & Cassaretto, K. J. (2008). Replacing overt verbal and gestural prompts with unobtrusive covert tactile prompts for students with autism. Behavior Research Methods. 40(4), 1106-1110.

Todd, J.T., Cunningham, L.A., Janes, A. A., Mendelson, J., & Morris, E.K. (1997). The generation and maintenance of schedule-induced polydipsia in normal male rats without weight reduction. Physiology and Behavior, 62, 1385-1390.

Todd, J.T. & Morris, E.K. (1993). Change and be ready to change again. American Psychologist, 48, 1158-1159.

Todd, J.T. & Morris, E.K. (1992). Case histories in the great power of steady misrepresentation. American Psychologist, 47, 1441-1453.

Todd, J.T., Morris, E.K., & Fenza, K.M. (1989). The temporal organization of extinction-induced responding in preschool children. Psychological Record, 39, 117-130.

Todd, J.T. (1987). The great power of steady misrepresentation: Behaviorism's presumed denial of instinct. Behavior Analyst, 10, 117-118.

Todd, J.T. (1987). "Learning by instinct": Comment. Scientific American, 256(4), 4.

Todd, J. T. & Morris, E. K. (1983). Misconception and miseducation: Presentations of radical behaviorism in psychology textbooks. Behavior Analyst, 6, 153-160.

Encyclopedia Articles

Todd, J.T. (2012). Rapid Prompting. [Extended encyclopedia article]. In F. Volkmar (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders. London: Springer.

Todd, J. T., & Pietrowski, J. L. (2005). Schedule-induced behavior. In M. Hersen & J. Rosqvist (Eds.), In Encyclopedia of Behavior Modification and Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Applications, Vol. I: Adult Clinical Applications. (pp. 499-501). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Drayton, A. K., & Todd, J. T. (2005). O. Ivar Lovaas. In A. M. Gross & R.S. Drabman (Eds.), In Encyclopedia of Behavior Modification and Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Applications, Vol. 2: Adult Clinical Applications. (pp. 894-895). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Todd, J. T., & Sandor, K. J. (2005). B. F. Skinner. In A. M. Gross & R.S. Drabman (Eds.), In Encyclopedia of Behavior Modification and Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Applications, Vol. 2: Child Clinical Applications. (pp. 11036-1037). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Todd, J. T. (2005). John Broadus Watson. In A. M. Gross & R.S. Drabman (Eds.), In Encyclopedia of Behavior Modification and Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Applications, Vol. 2: Child Clinical Applications. (pp. 1092-1094). Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA.

Todd, J. T. (2003). John B. Watson; Pioneer Lifespan Developmental Psychologist. In P. Fass (Ed.), In Encyclopedia of the History of Childhood. New York: MacMillan

Todd, J. T. (2000). Biography of Albert Weiss. Oxford Companion to Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Interviews

Todd, J.T. (2010, Spring). Facilitate this: Part I of a two-part interview with Dr. James Todd. Science in Autism Treatment, 7(2), 1-8. [Written interview conducted by D. Celeberti; also posted at: http://www.asatonline.org/resources/interviews/facilitate1]

Todd, J.T. (2010, Summer). Facilitate this: Part I of a two-part interview with Dr. James Todd. Science in Autism Treatment, 7(3), 16-18, 20-24. [Written interview conducted by D. Celeberti; also posted at: http://www.asatonline.org/resources/interviews/facilitate2]

Television Appearances

Amazing Stories (Japan) Fuji TV, December, 2012. [Discussed “Ideomotor effect” in a episode on facilitated communication.]

Courses Taught

PSY 101 Introduction to Psychology

PSY 301 Experimental Methodology in Psychology

PSY 304 Psychology of Learning

PSY 365 Behavior Modification

PSY 453 History and Systems of Psychology

PSY 620 Psychology of Learning

PSY 623 Experimental Analysis of Behavior

PSY 705 Clinical Ecological Psychology

COSC 105 Everyday Computing and Social Responsibility

 

see also www.baam.org

Faculty Resources

The Psychology Department is part of the College of Arts & Sciences, 214 Pray-Harrold, 734.487.4344